BDE-28

ID1180
NameBDE-28
Synonyms2,4,4'-Tribromodiphenyl ether
StructureThumb
Description
GroupPolybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE)
Sub-groupTribromodiphenyl ethers
Exposure sourcePollution
UseFlame retardants (BFRs)
CAS number41318-75-6
PubChem ID12110098
ChEBI ID
FooDB IDFDB016627
HMDB IDHMDB37545

Biomarker measurements

Biomarker concentration values

IDParent IDDepthSubject groupPopulationCountryCountry codeCohortTime definitionBiospecimenAnalytical methodBiomarkerBiomarker detailMeasurement sizeDetected (nb)Detected (%)Detected only?Arithmethic meanArithmethic SDGeometric meanGeometric SDMinMin (detected)Percentile_05Percentile_10Percentile_25MedianPercentile_75Percentile_90Percentile_95MaxInterquartile rangeMean 95% CI lowerMean 95% CI upperGMean 95% CI lowerGMean 95% CI upperUnitConverted arithmetic meanConverted geometric meanConverted medianAdjustment typeAdjusted onRegressed onExpressed asPublication
13310133431Luqiao - Heavy pollutionChildren with different levels of pollution at community hospitals in Zhejiang provinceChinaCNBlood, unspecifiedGC-ID-HRMSBDE-2870.530.260.271.1ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidShen 2010
13311133441Longyou - ControlsChildren with different levels of pollution at community hospitals in Zhejiang provinceChinaCNBlood, unspecifiedGC-ID-HRMSBDE-2860.380.190.220.74ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidShen 2010
13312133451Tiantai - Normal pollutionChildren with different levels of pollution at community hospitals in Zhejiang provinceChinaCNBlood, unspecifiedGC-ID-HRMSBDE-2890.470.180.320.79ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidShen 2010
13348133471AllAdolescents born in the Amsterdam/Zaandam areaNetherlandsNLAmsterdam-Zaandam studySerum, unspecifiedGC-HRMSBDE-2818140.2ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidLeijs 2008
13356133631ExposedIncineration workers at two municipal waste incinerators in SeoulKorea, Republic ofKRBlood, unspecifiedGC-HRMSBDE-281313100.00.390.270.171.16ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidKim 2005
13366133731Controls - MalesResidents near two municipal waste incinerators in Seoul non-occupationally exposed to PBDEs, PCDD/Fs and PCBsKorea, Republic ofKRBlood, unspecifiedGC-HRMSBDE-281010100.00.330.120.160.46ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidKim 2005
13376133831Controls - FemalesResidents near two municipal waste incinerators in Seoul non-occupationally exposed to PBDEs, PCDD/Fs and PCBsKorea, Republic ofKRBlood, unspecifiedGC-HRMSBDE-281212100.00.240.080.120.37ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidKim 2005
13566135791AllGeneral adult population in CataloniaSpainESA public health survey in CataloniaSerum, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-2873166.1Yes0.590.070.220.711.31.911.80.550.63ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidGari 2013
13582135841FemalesBlood donors at the Hong Kong Red CrossChinaCNPlasma, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-2854100.00.91.10.110.64.3ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidWang 2012
13586135881MalesBlood donors at the Hong Kong Red CrossChinaCNPlasma, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-286294.02.68.50.00.4941.0ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidWang 2012
13601136081All [Americans]First-generation of Mexican-American children born and raised in CaliforniaUnited StatesUSCHAMACOS (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas)Serum, unspecifiedGC-HRMSBDE-2826489.01.80.00.61.32.13.55.622.51.62.1ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidEskenazi 2011
13609136161All [Mexicans]Mexican children raised in MexicoMexicoMXProyecto MariposaSerum, unspecifiedGC-HRMSBDE-2828320.00.20.00.00.00.20.40.911.10.20.2ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidEskenazi 2011
13618136282AllGeneral population non-occupationally exposed to PBDEsKorea, Republic ofKRSerum, unspecifiedGC-HRMSBDE-2872045.70.210.00.08.52ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidKim 2012
13675136831AllMothers living in urban or suburban BeigjingChinaCNBreast milkGC-MSBDE-28103103100.00.180.190.010.040.080.120.20.431.21ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidShi 2013
13684136911AllPregnant women with singleton pregnancy in Cincinnati clinicUnited StatesUSSerum, unspecifiedGC-HRMSBDE-282090.01.020.141.435.85ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidChen 2013
13692136991AllPregnant women with singleton pregnancy in Cincinnati clinicUnited StatesUSCord serumGC-HRMSBDE-282065.01.660.413.116.76ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidChen 2013
137000AllMothers in North CarolinaUnited StatesUSPIN (Pregnancy Infection and Nutrition)Breast milkGC-ID-HRMSBDE-2822297.33.40.02.249.6ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidHoffman 2012
13705137121AllMothers at a hospital in the Waigaoqiao district of ShanghaiChinaCNBreast milkGC-MSBDE-28484798.01.160.00.884.36ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidCui 2012
13713137271AllMothers from the Luwan district of SanghaiChinaCNBreast milkGC-MSBDE-28480.460.540.110.363.89ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidMa 2012
13729137431All [Central Taiwan]Mothers from a medical center in central TaiwanTaiwanTWDioxin survey (Chao 2004)Breast milkGC-HRMSBDE-2842420.090.0780.050.070.105ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidShy 2012
13744137581All [Southern Taiwan]Mothers from four hospitals in southern TaiwanTaiwanTWBreast milkGC-HRMSBDE-281071070.0120.4270.040.0590.09ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidShy 2012
13760137781AllOffice cleaners, university students and policemen in TianjinChinaCNSerum, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-2811556.00.380.00.043.88ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidZhu 2009
137810AllGeneral populationUnited StatesUSNHANES 2003-2004Serum, unspecifiedGC-ID-HRMSBDE-28198779.01.20.00.01.12.14.87.91.01.4ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidSjodin 2008
13891138991AllAfrican American pregnant women at a clinic in Durham CountyUnited StatesUSHPHB (Healthy Pregnancy, Healthy Baby)Serum, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-2813738.690.00.60.62.586.016.89ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidStapleton 2011
13901139091AllPregnant women with singleton pregnanciesCanadaCAFAMILY (Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In Early Life)Serum, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-289797100.02.220.182.2212.31.733.05ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidFoster 2011
13911139181AllPregnant women from four hospitals in southern TaiwanTaiwanTWCord serumGC-HRMSBDE-28542750.00.1572.60.00.1010.1790.598ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidLin 2011
139450AllSubjects with (computer clerks of a large computer company in Athens) or without (general population in the Attika region) full-time computer workGreeceGRSerum, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-28615.00.030.080.010.010.45ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidKalantzi 2011
14017140241AllFirst time breastfeeding mothers living in the Pacific NorthwestUnited StatesUSBreast milkGC-MS/MSBDE-284040100.03.60.261.7217.4ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidShe 2007
141430AllMothers in TexasUnited StatesUSSerum, unspecifiedGC-ID-HRMSBDE-282980.90.40.00.70.36.1ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidSchecter 2010
141530AllMothers in TexasUnited StatesUSBreast milkGC-ID-HRMSBDE-2829271.91.30.00.41.38.5ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidSchecter 2010
14171141781AllPregnant women scheduled for caesarean section at Copenhagen University HospitalDenmarkDKPlasma, unspecifiedGC-HRMSBDE-285188.057.10.06.0932.9398.0pg/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidFrederiksen 2010
14180141871AllPregnant women scheduled for caesarean section at Copenhagen University HospitalDenmarkDKCord plasmaGC-HRMSBDE-284073.055.70.017.550.7271.0pg/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidFrederiksen 2010
14190142001AllSubjects from infertile couples living in the same householdUnited StatesUSA study of environmental exposures and reproductive healthSerum, unspecifiedGC-ID-HRMSBDE-28241.10.00.00.71.31.82.86.4ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidJohnson 2010
142010ChildrenMothers and their children from 16 cities in 11 statesUnited StatesUSSerum, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-2820201.10.31.02.2ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidLunder 2010
142110MothersMothers and their children from 16 cities in 11 statesUnited StatesUSSerum, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-2820200.720.20.442.5ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidLunder 2010
14233142561AllResidents from urban areas and fishing villages non-occupationally exposed to PBDEs and PCBsJapanJPBlood, unspecifiedGC-HRMSBDE-2872720.130.050.080.14ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidUemura 2010
14263142901AllMothers from four local hospitals in southern TaiwanTaiwanTWBreast milkGC-HRMSBDE-2846460.0850.0620.066ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidChao 2010
14292143071AllChildren from Dalian Children's HospitalChinaCNPlasma, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-28291.590.00.021.89ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidChen 2010
14309143301AllMothers in southern Taiwan non-occupationally exposed to PBDEsTaiwanTWBreast milkGC-HRMSBDE-2832320.0930.040.0860.1070.29ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidKoh 2010
14423144321AllImmigrant pregnant women in CaliforniaUnited StatesUSCHAMACOS (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas)Serum, unspecifiedGC-ID-HRMSBDE-2841651.90.40.00.00.41.12.229.70.30.5ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidCastorina 2011
144360AllPregnant women in CaliforniaUnited StatesUSCHAMACOS (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas)Serum, unspecifiedGC-ID-HRMSBDE-2828857.60.60.00.00.61.529.70.50.7ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidChevrier 2011
14446144551AllChildren in CaliforniaUnited StatesUSCHAMACOS (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas)Serum, unspecifiedGC-ID-HRMSBDE-2827288.02.00.01.32.13.55.623.21.82.2ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidBradman 2012
16420164281AllPregnant women with singleton pregnanciesCanadaCAFAMILY (Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In Early Life)Cord serumGC-MSBDE-289797100.05.530.54.085.937.8326.8ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidFoster 2011
164510AllPregnant women with singleton births at Johns Hopkins HospitalUnited StatesUSCord serumGC-ID-HRMSBDE-2829729.60.00.99.8ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidHerbstman 2007
174090Cohort 2004Mothers with singleton births at the University Women’s Hospital BaselSwitzerlandCHBreast milkGC-ECDBDE-28130Yes0.0ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidSchlumpf 2010
174440Cohort 2005Mothers with singleton births at the University Women’s Hospital BaselSwitzerlandCHBreast milkGC-ECDBDE-28216Yes0.440.21ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidSchlumpf 2010
174790Cohort 2006Mothers with singleton births at the University Women’s Hospital BaselSwitzerlandCHBreast milkGC-ECDBDE-28201Yes0.25ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidSchlumpf 2010
175140All [by study]Mothers with singleton births at the University Women’s Hospital BaselSwitzerlandCHBreast milkGC-ECDBDE-28547Yes0.410.210.250.250.680.7ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidSchlumpf 2010
17551175591Foam recyclersFoam recyclers and carpet installers exposed to PBDEsUnited StatesUSSerum, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-28121.03.222.3ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidStapleton 2008
17563175711Carpet installersFoam recyclers and carpet installers exposed to PBDEsUnited StatesUSSerum, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-2833.74.69.4ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidStapleton 2008
17575175831ControlsSpouses of foam recyclers and carpet installers non-exposed to PBDEsUnited StatesUSSerum, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-2850.00.8150.0ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidStapleton 2008
17587176011Vallecas - MothersMothers and fathers living in two areas of the community of MadridSpainESSerum, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-28610.00.060.43ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidGomara 2007
17603176171Vallecas - FathersMothers and fathers living in two areas of the community of MadridSpainESSerum, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-28510.00.00.0ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidGomara 2007
17619176331Vallecas - MothersMothers and fathers living in two areas of the community of MadridSpainESCord serumGC-MSBDE-28440.00.00.0ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidGomara 2007
17635176491Vallecas - MothersMothers and fathers living in two areas of the community of MadridSpainESBreast milkGC-MSBDE-28220.00.010.1ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidGomara 2007
17651176651Vallecas - MothersMothers and fathers living in two areas of the community of MadridSpainESPlacentaGC-MSBDE-28300.00.0020.06ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidGomara 2007
17667176811Getafe - MothersMothers and fathers living in two areas of the community of MadridSpainESSerum, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-28520.00.00.0ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidGomara 2007
17683176971Getafe - FathersMothers and fathers living in two areas of the community of MadridSpainESSerum, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-28530.00.00.0ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidGomara 2007
17699177131Getafe - MothersMothers and fathers living in two areas of the community of MadridSpainESCord serumGC-MSBDE-28480.00.00.0ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidGomara 2007
17715177291Getafe - MothersMothers and fathers living in two areas of the community of MadridSpainESBreast milkGC-MSBDE-28300.00.00.0ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidGomara 2007
17756177631AllPregnant women in the Guangzhou Second People's HospitalChinaCNdeliveryCord serumGC-MSBDE-28210.210.632.2ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidBi 2006
17765177721AllPregnant women in the Guangzhou Second People's HospitalChinaCNdeliverySerum, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-28210.190.392.7ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidBi 2006
17774177811AllPregnant women in the Guangzhou Second People's HospitalChinaCNdelivery + 2 to 8 daysBreast milkGC-MSBDE-28270.260.440.93ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidBi 2006
17822178291AllPregnant women after cesarean section in a hospital in SeoulKorea, Republic ofKRdeliverySerum, unspecifiedGC-HRMSBDE-282156.20.350.310.00.261.37ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidKim 2012
17830178371AllPregnant women after cesarean section in a hospital in SeoulKorea, Republic ofKRdeliveryCord serumGC-HRMSBDE-282178.20.330.640.00.032.28ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidKim 2012
17838178451AllPregnant women after cesarean section in a hospital in SeoulKorea, Republic ofKRdelivery + 7 daysBreast milkGC-HRMSBDE-282195.20.310.250.00.31.13ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidKim 2012
17847178671AllPregnant women at the University of Michigan Women's HospitalUnited StatesUSAmniotic fluidGC-MSBDE-281527.0206.0796.00.070.00.01.39pg/mL0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/LCrudeMiller 2012
17872178821AllPregnant women from four local hospitals in southern TaiwanTaiwanTWCord serumGC-HRMSBDE-283655.50.180.1550.00.1160.598ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidShy 2011
17884179001AllPregnant women in SeoulKorea, Republic ofKRdelivery - 1 daySerum, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-282024.10.740.08.1ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidKang 2010
17902179181AllPregnant women in SeoulKorea, Republic ofKRdeliveryCord serumGC-MSBDE-282024.13.00.028.0ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidKang 2010
17920179361AllPregnant women in SeoulKorea, Republic ofKRdelivery + 3 to 10 daysBreast milkGC-MSBDE-281782.11.00.013.0ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidKang 2010
17938179501AllGreat Lakes residents in WisconsinUnited StatesUSGreat LakesSerum, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-28445.02.01ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidImm 2009
179510All [by gender]Residents in the south coast area of the Laizhou BayChinaCNSerum, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-2815629.25.823.445.9ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidJin 2009
179590MalesResidents in the south coast area of the Laizhou BayChinaCNSerum, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-287127.63.523.432.3ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidJin 2009
179670FemalesResidents in the south coast area of the Laizhou BayChinaCNSerum, unspecifiedGC-MSBDE-288530.97.526.345.9ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidJin 2009
179750FemalesResidents in the south coast area of the Laizhou BayChinaCNBreast milkGC-MSBDE-28156.12.53.210.7ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidJin 2009
179900AllPregnant women hospitalized for caesarean deliveriesFranceFRdeliveryAdipose tissue, intraabdominal (perivisceral)GC-HRMSBDE-288686Yes0.1090.1760.0180.0641.481ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidAntignac 2009
180150AllPregnant women hospitalized for caesarean deliveriesFranceFRdelivery + 3 to 6 daysBreast milkGC-HRMSBDE-287727Yes0.1790.2980.0370.0891.62ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidAntignac 2009
180380AllPregnant women hospitalized for caesarean deliveriesFranceFRSerum, unspecifiedGC-HRMSBDE-28915Yes0.1530.1360.0420.1180.385ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidAntignac 2009
180610AllPregnant women hospitalized for caesarean deliveriesFranceFRdeliveryCord serumGC-HRMSBDE-28901Yes2.2190.02.2190.02.219ng/g0.0 ug/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidAntignac 2009
19057190561AllAdults in the greater Boston metropolitan areaUnited StatesUSFlaRE (Flame Retardant Exposure)baselineSerum, non-fastingGC-ID-HRMSBDE-28490.62.30.154.2ng/g0.0 ug/gDensityLipidMakey 2014

Intake values

No data available

Correlation values

No data available

Reproducibility values

IDMst. IDSubject groupPopulationCountryCountry codeCohortTime definitionBiological specimenExperimental methodBiomarkerBiomarker detailArithmetic meanGeometric meanMedianUnitAdjusted onReproducibility sizeICCICC 95% CI lowerICC 95% CI upperCV% WSCV% BSVAR WSVAR BSPublication
59419051AllAdults in the greater Boston metropolitan areaUnited StatesUSFlaRE (Flame Retardant Exposure)baseline; 6 months; 12 monthsSerum, non-fastingGC-ID-HRMSBDE-28ng/gLipid520.890.820.93Makey 2014