Retinol

ID135
NameRetinol
Synonyms[Vitamin A] / Vitamin A; Retinol; Preformed vitamin A
StructureThumb
Description
GroupDiterpenoids
Sub-groupRetinoids
Exposure sourceDiet
UseVitamins
CAS number68-26-8
PubChem ID445354
ChEBI ID17336
FooDB IDFDB013828
HMDB IDHMDB00305

Biomarker measurements

Biomarker concentration values

IDParent IDDepthSubject groupPopulationCountryCountry codeCohortTime definitionBiospecimenAnalytical methodBiomarkerBiomarker detailMeasurement sizeDetected (nb)Detected (%)Detected only?Arithmethic meanArithmethic SDGeometric meanGeometric SDMinMin (detected)Percentile_05Percentile_10Percentile_25MedianPercentile_75Percentile_90Percentile_95MaxInterquartile rangeMean 95% CI lowerMean 95% CI upperGMean 95% CI lowerGMean 95% CI upperUnitConverted arithmetic meanConverted geometric meanConverted medianAdjustment typeAdjusted onRegressed onExpressed asPublication
20190MalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Plasma, unspecifiedHPLCRetinol10862.062.472.87umol/L2470.0 nmol/LCrudeHodge 2009
20270FemalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Plasma, unspecifiedHPLCRetinol20241.812.182.53umol/L2180.0 nmol/LCrudeHodge 2009
20490MalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Plasma, unspecifiedHPLCRetinol1086378.0458.0540.0umol/mol458.0 umol/molDensityCholesterolHodge 2009
20570FemalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Plasma, unspecifiedHPLCRetinol2024328.0390.0468.0umol/mol390.0 umol/molDensityCholesterolHodge 2009
37310Quartile 1 (Adherence: <38.77%, MDI)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCRetinol821.840.53umol/L1840.0 nmol/LCrudeBach-Faig 2006
37320Quartile 1 (Adherence: <3.63%, MDS)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCRetinol821.810.55umol/L1810.0 nmol/LCrudeBach-Faig 2006
37330Quartile 1 (Adherence: <38.77%, MDI)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCRetinol821.820.56umol/L1820.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterol, TriglyceridesBach-Faig 2006
37340Quartile 1 (Adherence: <3.63%, MDS)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCRetinol821.740.54umol/L1740.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterol, TriglyceridesBach-Faig 2006
37470Quartile 2 (Adherence: 38.77 to 48%, MDI)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCRetinol821.790.53umol/L1790.0 nmol/LCrudeBach-Faig 2006
37480Quartile 2 (Adherence: 3.63 to 4.71%, MDS)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCRetinol821.870.51umol/L1870.0 nmol/LCrudeBach-Faig 2006
37490Quartile 2 (Adherence: 38.77 to 48%, MDI)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCRetinol821.790.54umol/L1790.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterol, TriglyceridesBach-Faig 2006
37500Quartile 2 (Adherence: 3.63 to 4.71%, MDS)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCRetinol821.850.53umol/L1850.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterol, TriglyceridesBach-Faig 2006
37630Quartile 3 (Adherence: 48 to 56.24%, MDI)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCRetinol821.880.43umol/L1880.0 nmol/LCrudeBach-Faig 2006
37640Quartile 3 (Adherence: 4.71 to 5.83%, MDS)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCRetinol821.880.48umol/L1880.0 nmol/LCrudeBach-Faig 2006
37650Quartile 3 (Adherence: 48 to 56.24%, MDI)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCRetinol821.820.51umol/L1820.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterol, TriglyceridesBach-Faig 2006
37660Quartile 3 (Adherence: 4.71 to 5.83%, MDS)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCRetinol821.80.5umol/L1800.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterol, TriglyceridesBach-Faig 2006
37790Quartile 4 (Adherence: >56.24%, MDI)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCRetinol821.950.47umol/L1950.0 nmol/LCrudeBach-Faig 2006
37800Quartile 4 (Adherence: >5.83%, MDS)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCRetinol821.890.42umol/L1890.0 nmol/LCrudeBach-Faig 2006
37810Quartile 4 (Adherence: >56.24%, MDI)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCRetinol821.860.45umol/L1860.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterol, TriglyceridesBach-Faig 2006
37820Quartile 4 (Adherence: >5.83%, MDS)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCRetinol821.880.47umol/L1880.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterol, TriglyceridesBach-Faig 2006
39310AllPregnant women participant in a dietary validation studyDenmarkDKDNBC (Danish National Birth Cohort)Plasma, fastingHPLCRetinol870.420.1ug/mL0.4 mg/LCrudeMikkelsen 2006
52400BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCRetinol292.060.62umol/L2060.0 nmol/LCrudeTangney 2004
52410WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCRetinol302.720.79umol/L2720.0 nmol/LCrudeTangney 2004
52420FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCRetinol342.390.8umol/L2390.0 nmol/LCrudeTangney 2004
52430MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCRetinol252.470.77umol/L2470.0 nmol/LCrudeTangney 2004
52800BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCRetinol292.220.59umol/L2220.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterol, TriglyceridesTangney 2004
52810WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCRetinol302.580.71umol/L2580.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterol, TriglyceridesTangney 2004
52820FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCRetinol341.770.74umol/L1770.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterol, TriglyceridesTangney 2004
52830MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCRetinol252.310.96umol/L2310.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterol, TriglyceridesTangney 2004
72640AllWomen in the southern part of Mexico CityMexicoMXPlasma, non-fastingHPLCRetinol110414.0110.0ug/L0.4 mg/LCrudeRomieu 1999
73990MalesParticipants in an investigation of antioxidant intake and adult onset asthma in ScotlandUnited KingdomGBPlasma, unspecifiedHPLCRetinol1183.91.01.73.87.1umol/L3900.0 nmol/L3800.0 nmol/LCrudeBodner 1998
74030FemalesParticipants in an investigation of antioxidant intake and adult onset asthma in ScotlandUnited KingdomGBPlasma, unspecifiedHPLCRetinol1553.20.90.83.16.1umol/L3200.0 nmol/L3100.0 nmol/LCrudeBodner 1998
81710Young malesParticipants in a vitamin K metabolic study in New England regionUnited StatesUSPlasma, fastingHPLCRetinol91.99umol/L1990.0 nmol/LCrudeBooth 1997
81750Young femalesParticipants in a vitamin K metabolic study in New England regionUnited StatesUSPlasma, fastingHPLCRetinol81.42umol/L1420.0 nmol/LCrudeBooth 1997
81790Old malesParticipants in a vitamin K metabolic study in New England regionUnited StatesUSPlasma, fastingHPLCRetinol92.18umol/L2180.0 nmol/LCrudeBooth 1997
81830Old femalesParticipants in a vitamin K metabolic study in New England regionUnited StatesUSPlasma, fastingHPLCRetinol81.63umol/L1630.0 nmol/LCrudeBooth 1997
89040FemalesChildren in GeorgiaUnited StatesUSSCAN (Studies of Children's Activity and Nutrition)Serum, non-fastingHPLCRetinol5441.0iuretinol/dL0.1 mg/LCrudeByers 1993
89100MalesChildren in GeorgiaUnited StatesUSSCAN (Studies of Children's Activity and Nutrition)Serum, non-fastingHPLCRetinol4342.0iuretinol/dL0.1 mg/LCrudeByers 1993
91440MalesParticipants in a case-control study of nutritional status and age-related cataractsUnited StatesUSPlasma, unspecifiedHPLCRetinol552.080.62umol/L2080.0 nmol/LCrudeJacques 1993
91540Males - Supplement nonusersParticipants in a case-control study of nutritional status and age-related cataractsUnited StatesUSPlasma, unspecifiedHPLCRetinol421.980.54umol/L1980.0 nmol/LCrudeJacques 1993
91640FemalesParticipants in a case-control study of nutritional status and age-related cataractsUnited StatesUSPlasma, unspecifiedHPLCRetinol821.950.61umol/L1950.0 nmol/LCrudeJacques 1993
91740Females - Supplement nonusersParticipants in a case-control study of nutritional status and age-related cataractsUnited StatesUSPlasma, unspecifiedHPLCRetinol711.970.65umol/L1970.0 nmol/LCrudeJacques 1993
92350All [HPFS]Men living in the Boston areaUnited StatesUSHPFS (Health Professionals Follow-Up Study)Plasma, non-fastingHPLCRetinol1212.130.38umol/L2130.0 nmol/LCrudeAscherio 1992
92450All [NHS]Women living in the Boston areaUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)Plasma, non-fastingHPLCRetinol1861.910.43umol/L1910.0 nmol/LCrudeAscherio 1992
93950SmokersMen smokers and non-smokers in ScotlandUnited KingdomGBSerum, non-fastingMissingRetinol79597.0143.0ug/L0.6 mg/LCrudeBolton-Smith 1991
94030Non-smokersMen smokers and non-smokers in ScotlandUnited KingdomGBSerum, non-fastingMissingRetinol117594.0139.0ug/L0.6 mg/LCrudeBolton-Smith 1991
98880AllStaff members of laboratory and health centers in Boston areaUnited StatesUSRandomized trial on vitamin supplementsPlasma, fastingHPLCRetinol5855.914.9ug/dL0.6 mg/LCrudeWillett 1983
182700AllHawaii womenUnited StatesUSCohort study of cervical human papillomavirus at the Cancer Research Center of Hawaiibaseline; month 4; month 8; month 12Plasma, fastingHPLCRetinol381685.0224.00.0663.01981.0ng/mL0.7 mg/L0.7 mg/LCrudeShvetsov 2009
184710AllSmokers and nonsmokers exposed to second-hand smokeUnited StatesUSStudy on the effect of antioxidant supplements on oxidative damage in active and passive smokersbaseline; 2 weeksPlasma, fastingHPLCRetinol20663.0318.1661.1ug/dL0.6 mg/L0.6 mg/LCrudeBlock 2006
186340AllNursesUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)baseline; 2 yearsPlasma, unspecifiedHPLCRetinol40402.0571.0798.0ug/L0.6 mg/LCrudeKotsopoulos 2010

Intake values

IDParent IDDepthSubject groupPopulationCountryCountry codeCohortTime definitionIntake toolIntake food coverageIntake time coverageIntake assessmentCompoundCompound detailSupplement intakes included?Measurement sizeDetected (nb)Detected (%)Detected only?Arithmethic meanArithmethic SDGeometric meanGeometric SDMinMin (detected)Percentile_05Percentile_10Percentile_25MedianPercentile_75Percentile_90Percentile_95MaxInterquartile rangeMean 95% CI lowerMean 95% CI upperGMean 95% CI lowerGMean 95% CI upperUnitConverted arithmetic meanConverted geometric meanConverted medianAdjustment typeAdjusted onRegressed onExpressed asPublication
11730MalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyJapanJPJPHC StudybaselineCalculated with FDB_raw databaseDietary record (7-day)Retinol102447.01003.0ug/day0.4 mg/dayCrudeKobayashi 2011
11890MalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyJapanJPJPHC StudybaselineCalculated with FDB_cook databaseDietary record (7-day)Retinol102228.0322.0ug/day0.2 mg/dayCrudeKobayashi 2011
12040FemalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyJapanJPJPHC StudybaselineCalculated with FDB_raw databaseDietary record (7-day)Retinol113314.0498.0ug/day0.3 mg/dayCrudeKobayashi 2011
12190FemalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyJapanJPJPHC StudybaselineCalculated with FDB_cook databaseDietary record (7-day)Retinol113218.0263.0ug/day0.2 mg/dayCrudeKobayashi 2011
20050MalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Retinol1086309.0505.0826.0ug/day0.5 mg/dayCrudeHodge 2009
20120FemalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Retinol2024322.0531.0961.0ug/day0.5 mg/dayCrudeHodge 2009
20350MalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Retinol108636.653.176.0ug/MJ0.2 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyHodge 2009
20420FemalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Retinol202446.166.8112.0ug/MJ0.3 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyHodge 2009
38970AllPregnant women participant in a dietary validation studyDenmarkDKDNBC (Danish National Birth Cohort)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolNo88708.0540.0ug/day0.7 mg/dayCrudeMikkelsen 2006
38990AllPregnant women participant in a dietary validation studyDenmarkDKDNBC (Danish National Birth Cohort)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolYes881258.0624.0ug/day1.3 mg/dayCrudeMikkelsen 2006
39060AllPregnant women participant in a dietary validation studyDenmarkDKDNBC (Danish National Birth Cohort)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolNo88640.0403.0ug/10 MJ0.3 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyMikkelsen 2006
39080AllPregnant women participant in a dietary validation studyDenmarkDKDNBC (Danish National Birth Cohort)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolYes881190.0502.0ug/10 MJ0.5 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyMikkelsen 2006
39150AllPregnant women participant in a dietary validation studyDenmarkDKDNBC (Danish National Birth Cohort)Weighed Dietary record (7-day)RetinolNo88642.0414.0ug/day0.6 mg/dayCrudeMikkelsen 2006
39170AllPregnant women participant in a dietary validation studyDenmarkDKDNBC (Danish National Birth Cohort)Weighed Dietary record (7-day)RetinolYes881143.0516.0ug/day1.1 mg/dayCrudeMikkelsen 2006
39230AllPregnant women participant in a dietary validation studyDenmarkDKDNBC (Danish National Birth Cohort)Weighed Dietary record (7-day)RetinolNo88558.0306.0ug/10 MJ0.2 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyMikkelsen 2006
39250AllPregnant women participant in a dietary validation studyDenmarkDKDNBC (Danish National Birth Cohort)Weighed Dietary record (7-day)RetinolYes881050.0444.0ug/10 MJ0.4 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyMikkelsen 2006
50480BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolYes293269.02843.0ug/day3.3 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
50490WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolYes304525.03770.0ug/day4.5 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
50500FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolYes343024.02657.0ug/day3.0 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
50510MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolYes255129.03965.0ug/day5.1 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
50520BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolNo292165.01497.0ug/day2.2 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
50530WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolNo302078.01301.0ug/day2.1 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
50540FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolNo342072.01482.0ug/day2.1 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
50550MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolNo252164.01306.0ug/day2.2 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
51080BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolYes293316.02756.0ug/day3.3 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
51090WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolYes304441.03851.0ug/day4.4 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
51100FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolYes343220.02780.0ug/day3.2 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
51110MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolYes254523.03808.0ug/day4.5 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
51120BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolNo292207.01484.0ug/day2.2 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
51130WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolNo302016.01282.0ug/day2.0 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
51140FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolNo342211.01700.0ug/day2.2 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
51150MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolNo251887.01118.0ug/day1.9 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
51520BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)RetinolYes291625.01204.0ug/day1.6 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
51530WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)RetinolYes303102.02295.0ug/day3.1 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
51540FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)RetinolYes342158.01694.0ug/day2.2 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
51550MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)RetinolYes252613.02752.0ug/day2.6 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
51560BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)RetinolNo291093.0827.0ug/day1.1 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
51570WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)RetinolNo301622.01194.0ug/day1.6 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
51580FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)RetinolNo341202.0791.0ug/day1.2 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
51590MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)RetinolNo251743.01833.0ug/day1.7 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
51960BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)RetinolYes29864.01642.0ug/day0.9 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
51970WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)RetinolYes302630.01829.0ug/day2.6 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
51980FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)RetinolYes342225.01610.0ug/day2.2 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
51990MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)RetinolYes252213.02022.0ug/day2.2 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
52000BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)RetinolNo291542.01330.0ug/day1.5 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
52010WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)RetinolNo301334.0879.0ug/day1.3 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
52020FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)RetinolNo342225.01610.0ug/day2.2 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
52030MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)RetinolNo252213.02023.0ug/day2.2 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
72720AllWomen in the southern part of Mexico CityMexicoMX24-h Dietary recall (4-day)Retinol110664.0279.0iuretinol/day0.2 mg/dayCrudeRomieu 1999
72820AllWomen in the southern part of Mexico CityMexicoMXFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Retinol110809.0445.0iuretinol/day0.2 mg/dayCrudeRomieu 1999
72920AllWomen in the southern part of Mexico CityMexicoMXFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Retinol110990.0559.0iuretinol/day0.3 mg/dayCrudeRomieu 1999
83250MalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyNetherlandsNLEPIC-Dutch (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)Retinol630.66mg/day0.7 mg/dayCrudeOcke 1997
83320MalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyNetherlandsNLEPIC-Dutch (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Retinol630.74mg/day0.7 mg/dayCrudeOcke 1997
83390FemalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyNetherlandsNLEPIC-Dutch (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)Retinol580.45mg/day0.4 mg/dayCrudeOcke 1997
83460FemalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyNetherlandsNLEPIC-Dutch (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Retinol580.55mg/day0.5 mg/dayCrudeOcke 1997
83750MalesSchoolteachers participant in a dietary validation studyGreeceGREPIC-Greece (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)Retinol421.22.0mg/day1.2 mg/dayCrudeKatsouyanni 1997
83810MalesSchoolteachers participant in a dietary validation studyGreeceGREPIC-Greece (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Retinol421.11.9mg/day1.1 mg/dayCrudeKatsouyanni 1997
83870MalesSchoolteachers participant in a dietary validation studyGreeceGREPIC-Greece (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Retinol420.60.6mg/day0.6 mg/dayCrudeKatsouyanni 1997
83930FemalesSchoolteachers participant in a dietary validation studyGreeceGREPIC-Greece (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)Retinol381.42.8mg/day1.4 mg/dayCrudeKatsouyanni 1997
83990FemalesSchoolteachers participant in a dietary validation studyGreeceGREPIC-Greece (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Retinol380.50.4mg/day0.5 mg/dayCrudeKatsouyanni 1997
84050FemalesSchoolteachers participant in a dietary validation studyGreeceGREPIC-Greece (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Retinol380.71.0mg/day0.7 mg/dayCrudeKatsouyanni 1997
92520All [HPFS]Men living in the Boston areaUnited StatesUSHPFS (Health Professionals Follow-Up Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolYes1213.824.32umol/day3.8 umol/dayCrudeAscherio 1992
92530All [HPFS]Men living in the Boston areaUnited StatesUSHPFS (Health Professionals Follow-Up Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolNo1212.412.8umol/day2.4 umol/dayCrudeAscherio 1992
92580All [NHS]Women living in the Boston areaUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolYes1863.273.12umol/day3.3 umol/dayCrudeAscherio 1992
92590All [NHS]Women living in the Boston areaUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolNo1861.861.43umol/day1.9 umol/dayCrudeAscherio 1992
93840SmokersMen smokers and non-smokers in ScotlandUnited KingdomGBFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolNo79768.0346.0ug/day0.8 mg/dayCrudeBolton-Smith 1991
93900Non-smokersMen smokers and non-smokers in ScotlandUnited KingdomGBFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolNo117681.0536.0ug/day0.7 mg/dayCrudeBolton-Smith 1991
98910AllStaff members of laboratory and health centers in Boston areaUnited StatesUSRandomized trial on vitamin supplementsFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)RetinolNo582340.03050.0iuretinol/day0.7 mg/dayCrudeWillett 1983

Correlation values

Reproducibility values

IDMst. IDSubject groupPopulationCountryCountry codeCohortTime definitionBiological specimenExperimental methodBiomarkerBiomarker detailArithmetic meanGeometric meanMedianUnitAdjusted onReproducibility sizeICCICC 95% CI lowerICC 95% CI upperCV% WSCV% BSVAR WSVAR BSPublication
12918270AllHawaii womenUnited StatesUSCohort study of cervical human papillomavirus at the Cancer Research Center of Hawaiibaseline; month 4; month 8; month 12Plasma, fastingHPLCRetinol685.0663.0ng/mL3810.530.0030.003Shvetsov 2009
17618471AllSmokers and nonsmokers exposed to second-hand smokeUnited StatesUSStudy on the effect of antioxidant supplements on oxidative damage in active and passive smokersbaseline; 2 weeksPlasma, fastingHPLCRetinol63.0361.1ug/dL2060.690.0230.052Block 2006
29118634AllNursesUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)baseline; 2 yearsPlasma, unspecifiedHPLCRetinol571.0ug/L400.790.650.889.618.9Kotsopoulos 2010
61519086AllDutch participants of the EPIC-StudyNetherlandsNLMORGEN-EPIC projectbaseline; 3 yearsPlasma, non-fastingHPLCRetinolnmol/L620.50.320.64Leenders 2013