Mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)

ID1398
NameMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)
SynonymsMonobutyl phthalate
StructureThumb
DescriptionMetabolite of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP).
GroupPhthalates
Sub-groupPhthalate monoesters
Exposure sourcePollution
UsePlasticizers
CAS number131-70-4
PubChem ID8575
ChEBI ID
FooDB IDFDB029357
HMDB IDHMDB13247

Biomarker measurements

Biomarker concentration values

IDParent IDDepthSubject groupPopulationCountryCountry codeCohortTime definitionBiospecimenAnalytical methodBiomarkerBiomarker detailMeasurement sizeDetected (nb)Detected (%)Detected only?Arithmethic meanArithmethic SDGeometric meanGeometric SDMinMin (detected)Percentile_05Percentile_10Percentile_25MedianPercentile_75Percentile_90Percentile_95MaxInterquartile rangeMean 95% CI lowerMean 95% CI upperGMean 95% CI lowerGMean 95% CI upperUnitConverted arithmetic meanConverted geometric meanConverted medianAdjustment typeAdjusted onRegressed onExpressed asPublication
182330AllHmong womenUnited StatesUSFox River Environment and Diet Study cohort in Green Bay, Wisconsinbaseline; 15 days; 29.5 daysUrine, first morning spotLC-ID-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)45100.025.21.96.917.525.440.083.9127.1ug/g25.2 ug/g25.4 ug/gDensityCreatininePeck 2010
186710AllWomen in Washington DCUnited StatesUSA study to screen for uterine fibroids in 1996-1997baseline; 1 dayUrine, first morning spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)4652.735.80.443.4157.3ug/g52.7 ug/g43.4 ug/gDensityCreatinineHoppin 2002
186890AllMinority childrenUnited StatesUSbaseline; 2 weeks; 1 month; 2 months, 3 months; 6 monthsUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)3552.09.152.6165.1660.8ug/g52.0 ug/g52.6 ug/gDensityCreatinineTeitelbaum 2008
188130AllPregnant women living in the Northern karst area of Puerto RicoPuerto RicoPRPROTECT (Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats)baseline; 4 weeks; 8 weeksUrine, spotLC-ID-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)13998.719.29.820.942.0117.0413.017.021.7ng/mL0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/LCrudeCantonwine 2014
188920AllWomen seeking evaluation and treatment for infertility at the Massachusetts General HospitalUnited StatesUSEARTH (Environment and Reproductive Health)baseline; 12 weeksUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)1379.014.022.0ug/L0.0 mg/LDensitySpecific gravityBraun 2012
189000AllWomen seeking evaluation and treatment for infertility at the Massachusetts General HospitalUnited StatesUSEARTH (Environment and Reproductive Health)baseline; 15 weeks; 28 weeksUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)13711.016.024.0ug/L0.0 mg/LDensitySpecific gravityBraun 2012
18915205052AllWomenUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)baseline; 2 yearsUrine, first morning spotLC-ID-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)4037.010.436.8177.0ng/mg37.0 ug/g36.8 ug/gDensityCreatinineTownsend 2013
192570AllChildren with and without asthma and/or allergiesDenmarkDKIECH (Danish Indoor Environment and Children’s Health)Urine, first morning spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)441100.0113.7221.078.02.219.948.880.8126.2242.7ng/mL0.1 mg/L0.1 mg/L0.1 mg/LCrudeLanger 2013
192880AllChildrenGermanyDEGerES IV (German Environmental Survey IV)Urine, first morning spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)59995.693.4236.0310.01090.090.4101.0ug/L0.1 mg/L0.1 mg/LCrudeBecker 2009
193780AllPrimary school starters at the City of FrankfurtGermanyDEUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)111100.073.753.64.257.3183.0325.061.985.5ug/g73.7 ug/g53.6 ug/g57.3 ug/gDensityCreatinineKoch 2011
194180AllAdultsUnited StatesUSNHANES IIIUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)28936.91.69.319.433.460.1162.02760.0ug/g36.9 ug/g33.4 ug/gDensityCreatinineBlount 2000
19447194481ChildrenMother-child pairs in rural and urban DenmarkDenmarkDKUrine, first morning spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)14537.08.813.022.033.047.072.0125.0ug/g37.0 ug/g33.0 ug/gDensityCreatinineFrederiksen 2013
19464194651MothersMother-child pairs in rural and urban DenmarkDenmarkDKUrine, first morning spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)14524.04.69.515.021.029.041.072.0ug/g24.0 ug/g21.0 ug/gDensityCreatinineFrederiksen 2013
194890FemalesSubjects living in Central ItalyItalyITUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)8399.020.2656.211.8626.7144.98.1728.43ug/g20.3 ug/g26.7 ug/gDensityCreatinineTranfo 2013
194940MalesSubjects living in Central ItalyItalyITUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)7499.017.5951.361.821.6141.035.7229.45ug/g17.6 ug/g21.6 ug/gDensityCreatinineTranfo 2013
19499195011ChildrenMother-child pairs in the industrialized city of DuisburgGermanyDEThe Duisburg birth cohort studyUrine, first morning spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)104100.046.940.853.9ug/g46.9 ug/gDensityCreatinineKasper-Sonnenberg 2012
19526195281MothersMother-child pairs in the industrialized city of DuisburgGermanyDEThe Duisburg birth cohort studyUrine, first morning spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)103100.027.524.830.5ug/g27.5 ug/gDensityCreatinineKasper-Sonnenberg 2012
195550AllPregnant women in two French regionsFranceFRELFE (Étude Longitudinale Francaise depuis l’Enfance)deliveryUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)27974.9117.94.845.5202.11269.0ug/g74.9 ug/g45.5 ug/gDensityCreatinineZeman 2013
195680AllMothers in southern SwedenSwedenSEUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)383856.037.018.050.068.0191.0ug/g56.0 ug/g50.0 ug/gDensityCreatinineHogberg 2008
195820AllMothers in southern SwedenSwedenSESerum, unspecifiedLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)36171.83.30.540.541.920.0ng/mL0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/LCrudeHogberg 2008
196000AllMothers in southern SwedenSwedenSEBreast milkLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)42111.21.30.540.541.35.7ng/mL0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/LCrudeHogberg 2008
196060AllMinority pregnant women in New York cityUnited StatesUSCCCEH (Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health)pregnancyUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)16438.06.020.036.084.0203.032.045.0ng/mL0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/LDensitySpecific gravityJust 2010
196110AllPregnant womenNorwayNOMoBa (Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort)Urine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)11053.42ug/g53.4 ug/gDensityCreatinineYe 2009
196270AllPregnant womenNetherlandsNLGeneration R studyUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)10086.03ug/g86.0 ug/gDensityCreatinineYe 2009
196410AllPregnant womenUnited StatesUSNHANESUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)11122.69ug/g22.7 ug/gDensityCreatinineYe 2009
196810UrbanUrban and rural premenstrual girlsEgyptEGUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)28171.354.59.069.71350.0ng/mL0.2 mg/L0.1 mg/LDensitySpecific gravityColacino 2011
196970RuralUrban and rural premenstrual girlsEgyptEGUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)2982.326.53.243.2728.1ng/mL0.1 mg/L0.0 mg/LDensitySpecific gravityColacino 2011
197150AllMinority pregnant women in New York cityUnited StatesUSCCCEH (Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health)Urine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)246100.037.57.323.035.570.1174.933.342.2ng/mL0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/LCrudeAdibi 2008
197470MalesAdults from southern GermanyGermanyDEINES (Integrated Exposure Assessment Survey)baseline; 1 day; 2 days; 3 days; 4 days; 5 days; 6 days; 7 daysUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)2346.722.929.241.472.373.686.9ug/g46.7 ug/g41.4 ug/gDensityCreatinineFromme 2007
197570FemalesAdults from southern GermanyGermanyDEINES (Integrated Exposure Assessment Survey)baseline; 1 day; 2 days; 3 days; 4 days; 5 days; 6 days; 7 daysUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)2755.630.633.746.883.095.0172.8ug/g55.6 ug/g46.8 ug/gDensityCreatinineFromme 2007
197680AllGeneral populationUnited StatesUSNHANES 1999-2000Urine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)254199.022.47.7412.821.938.968.397.521.123.8ug/g22.4 ug/g21.9 ug/gDensityCreatinineSilva 2004
197820AllGirls from New York City, New York, Cincinnati, Ohio, and northern CaliforniaUnited StatesUSUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)9097.828.23.40.337.4363.0ug/L0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/LCrudeWolff 2007
198000AllStudents from 1988-2003GermanyDEESB (German Environmental Specimen Bank)Urine, 24-hLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)63414.3109.0461.03294.0ug/g109.0 ug/gDensityCreatinineWittassek 2007
198620ChildrenNursery-school children and their teachers and parents in rural southern GermanyGermanyDEUrine, first morning spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)3662.5161.02249.0ug/g161.0 ug/gDensityCreatinineKoch 2005
198640AdultsNursery-school children and their teachers and parents in rural southern GermanyGermanyDEUrine, first morning spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)1948.179.3149.0ug/g79.3 ug/gDensityCreatinineKoch 2005
198690FemalesSubjects from three citiesChinaCNUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)99102.064.636.559.1127.0502.0ng/mL0.1 mg/L0.1 mg/L0.1 mg/LCrudeGuo 2011
198830MalesSubjects from three citiesChinaCNUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)84107.062.31.332.467.6139.0798.0ng/mL0.1 mg/L0.1 mg/L0.1 mg/LCrudeGuo 2011
198970AllSubjects from three citiesChinaCNUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)18363.1ug/g63.1 ug/gDensityCreatinineGuo 2011
199110ChineseSubjects from seven asian countriesChinaCNUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)4053.669.5ng/mL0.1 mg/L0.1 mg/LCrudeGuo 2011
199250IndianSubjects from seven asian countriesIndiaINUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)2213.114.9ng/mL0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/LCrudeGuo 2011
199390JapaneseSubjects from seven asian countriesJapanJPUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)3513.111.5ng/mL0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/LCrudeGuo 2011
199530KuwaitiSubjects from seven asian countriesKuwaitKWUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)4674.178.7ng/mL0.1 mg/L0.1 mg/LCrudeGuo 2011
199670MalaysianSubjects from seven asian countriesMalaysiaMYUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)2914.515.1ng/mL0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/LCrudeGuo 2011
199810VietnameseSubjects from seven asian countriesViet NamVNUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)3017.014.1ng/mL0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/LCrudeGuo 2011
199950KoreanSubjects from seven asian countriesKorea, Republic ofKRUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)6017.019.8ng/mL0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/LCrudeGuo 2011
200090AllInhabitants of Erlangen and surroundingsGermanyDEUrine, first morning spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)85195.0133.046.7157.0531.0613.0ug/g195.0 ug/g157.0 ug/gDensityCreatinineKoch 2003
200190MothersPregnant women and their childrenTaiwanTWpregnancyUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)100102.326.887.49569.087.12120.12ug/g102.3 ug/g87.5 ug/gDensityCreatinineLin 2011
200510Mothers providing milk samplesPregnant women and their childrenTaiwanTWBreast milkLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)292.884.051.714.83mg/L2.9 mg/L4.1 mg/LCrudeLin 2011
200620Children aged 5-6 yearsPregnant women and their childrenTaiwanTWUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)59169.5154.53135.0212.9ug/g169.5 ug/g154.5 ug/gDensityCreatinineLin 2011
200730Children aged 2-3 yearsPregnant women and their childrenTaiwanTWUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)30332.0314.0257.0428.0ug/g332.0 ug/g314.0 ug/gDensityCreatinineLin 2011
200840NewbornsPregnant women and their childrenTaiwanTWCord serumLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)302.8823.91.714.83ug/L0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/LCrudeLin 2011
201390AllGeneral populationCanadaCACHMS (Canadian Health Measures Survey)Urine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)323623.211.923.846.7120.921.225.3ug/L0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/LCrudeSaravanabhavan 2013
201470MalesGeneral populationCanadaCACHMS (Canadian Health Measures Survey)Urine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)163023.212.824.945.1118.620.326.1ug/L0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/LCrudeSaravanabhavan 2013
201610AllGeneral populationCanadaCACHMS (Canadian Health Measures Survey)Urine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)323625.815.623.137.9103.924.027.6ug/g25.8 ug/g23.1 ug/gDensityCreatinineSaravanabhavan 2013
201680MalesGeneral populationCanadaCACHMS (Canadian Health Measures Survey)Urine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)163021.713.120.530.983.120.123.4ug/g21.7 ug/g20.5 ug/gDensityCreatinineSaravanabhavan 2013
201750ChildrenGeneral populationCanadaCACHMS (Canadian Health Measures Survey)Urine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)103733.118.632.666.5168.228.637.5ug/L0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/LCrudeSaravanabhavan 2013
201880AllInfants from the Munich areaGermanyDEINES (Integrated Exposure Assessment Survey)baseline; 1 day; 2 days; 3 days; 4 days; 5 days; 6 daysUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)2599.041.132.8107.2206.0ug/L0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/LCrudeFromme 2013
202120AllPregnant women in JerusalemIsraelILpregnancyUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)1932.94.145.990.0ug/g32.9 ug/g45.9 ug/gDensityCreatinineBerman 2009
202310MothersPregnant women and their childrenSpainESINMA (Environment and Childhood)pregnancyUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)11827.539.0ng/mL0.0 mg/LCrudeCasas 2011
202470ChildrenPregnant women and their childrenSpainESINMA (Environment and Childhood)Urine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)1930.235.7ng/mL0.0 mg/LCrudeCasas 2011
202530AllOffice workersTaiwanTWUrine, spotGC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)6090.025.94.213.836.571.8115.0141.6ng/mL0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/LCrudeChen 2008
203140AllPregnant womenPeruPEbaseline; 3 months; 6 monthsUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)7995.09.37.611.2ug/L0.0 mg/LCrudeIrvin 2010
203230AllPregnant womenPeruPEbaseline; 3 months; 6 monthsUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)7896.019.917.123.2ug/g19.9 ug/gDensityCreatinineIrvin 2010
203350AllPregnant women from RotterdamNetherlandsNLGeneration R studypregnancyUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)100100.043.23.14.721.242.786.6420.8ug/L0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/LCrudeYe 2008
203510AllPregnant women from RotterdamNetherlandsNLGeneration R studypregnancyUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)10067.12.215.341.662.2106.0351.0ug/g67.1 ug/g62.2 ug/gDensityCreatinineYe 2008
204650AllMothers from southern GermanyGermanyDEBAMBI (Bavarian Monitoring of Breast Milk study)delivery + 4 to 8 weeksBreast milkLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)74100.02.62.13.96.718.1ug/L0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/LCrudeFromme 2011
204720AllResidents of the Tokyo-Yokohama areaJapanJPUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)3636.0ug/L0.0 mg/LCrudeItoh 2007
204780AllWomenUnited StatesUSbaseline; 1 day; 28 days; 29 days; 30 days; 31 days; 32 days; 33 days; 34 daysUrine, first morning spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)1085.584.511.02418.0ng/mL0.1 mg/LCrudeMarcus 2010
204830AllWomenUnited StatesUSbaseline; 1 day; 28 days; 29 days; 30 days; 31 days; 32 days; 33 days; 34 daysUrine, first morning spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)1097.088.119.02231.0ug/g97.0 ug/gDensityCreatinineMarcus 2010
20500189162AllWomenUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)baseline; 2 yearsUrine, first morning spotLC-ID-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)40166.746.7165.8797.4pmol/mg0.2 umol/g0.2 umol/gDensityCreatinineTownsend 2013

Intake values

No data available

Correlation values

No data available

Reproducibility values

IDMst. IDSubject groupPopulationCountryCountry codeCohortTime definitionBiological specimenExperimental methodBiomarkerBiomarker detailArithmetic meanGeometric meanMedianUnitAdjusted onReproducibility sizeICCICC 95% CI lowerICC 95% CI upperCV% WSCV% BSVAR WSVAR BSPublication
9918233AllHmong womenUnited StatesUSFox River Environment and Diet Study cohort in Green Bay, Wisconsinbaseline; 15 days; 29.5 daysUrine, first morning spotLC-ID-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)25.225.4ug/gCreatinine450.550.510.58Peck 2010
31318671AllWomen in Washington DCUnited StatesUSA study to screen for uterine fibroids in 1996-1997baseline; 1 dayUrine, first morning spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)52.743.4ug/gCreatinine460.80.690.88Hoppin 2002
34418689AllMinority childrenUnited StatesUSbaseline; 2 weeks; 1 month; 2 months, 3 months; 6 monthsUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)52.052.6ug/gCreatinine350.350.350.19Teitelbaum 2008
44118813AllPregnant women living in the Northern karst area of Puerto RicoPuerto RicoPRPROTECT (Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats)baseline; 4 weeks; 8 weeksUrine, spotLC-ID-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)19.220.9ng/mL1390.410.30.52Cantonwine 2014
45318829AllPregnant women living in the Northern karst area of Puerto RicoPuerto RicoPRPROTECT (Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats)baseline; 4 weeks; 8 weeksUrine, spotLC-ID-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)ng/mLSpecific gravity1380.420.310.53Cantonwine 2014
49618892AllWomen seeking evaluation and treatment for infertility at the Massachusetts General HospitalUnited StatesUSEARTH (Environment and Reproductive Health)baseline; 12 weeksUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)14.0ug/LSpecific gravity1370.4Braun 2012
50418900AllWomen seeking evaluation and treatment for infertility at the Massachusetts General HospitalUnited StatesUSEARTH (Environment and Reproductive Health)baseline; 15 weeks; 28 weeksUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)16.0ug/LSpecific gravity1370.45Braun 2012
52020500AllWomenUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)baseline; 2 yearsUrine, first morning spotLC-ID-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)166.7165.8pmol/mgCreatinine400.530.310.730.310.34Townsend 2013
79719731Variability subgroupMinority pregnant women in New York cityUnited StatesUSCCCEH (Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health)baseline; 2 weeks; 4 weeksUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)ng/mL280.62Adibi 2008
80119735AllAdults from southern GermanyGermanyDEINES (Integrated Exposure Assessment Survey)baseline; 1 day; 2 days; 3 days; 4 days; 5 days; 6 days; 7 daysUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)ug/gCreatinine500.45Fromme 2007
89520478AllWomenUnited StatesUSbaseline; 1 day; 28 days; 29 days; 30 days; 31 days; 32 days; 33 days; 34 daysUrine, first morning spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisMono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)85.5ng/mL100.4Marcus 2010