Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)

ID286
NameFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)
Synonymscis-n3-PUFA; n3-PUFA
StructureThumb
Description
GroupFatty acids
Sub-groupPUFA
Exposure sourceDiet
Use
CAS number
PubChem ID
ChEBI ID
FooDB ID
HMDB ID

Biomarker measurements

Biomarker concentration values

IDParent IDDepthSubject groupPopulationCountryCountry codeCohortTime definitionBiospecimenAnalytical methodBiomarkerBiomarker detailMeasurement sizeDetected (nb)Detected (%)Detected only?Arithmethic meanArithmethic SDGeometric meanGeometric SDMinMin (detected)Percentile_05Percentile_10Percentile_25MedianPercentile_75Percentile_90Percentile_95MaxInterquartile rangeMean 95% CI lowerMean 95% CI upperGMean 95% CI lowerGMean 95% CI upperUnitConverted arithmetic meanConverted geometric meanConverted medianAdjustment typeAdjusted onRegressed onExpressed asPublication
128512832AllMiddle-aged subjects in Southern ChinaChinaCNStudy on soyfood intake and cardiovascular risk factors in GuangzhouRed blood cell membrane, unspecifiedGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
12511.5512.82percentRoot11.6 percentRootCrudeZhang 2010
1579102021MalesProfessional fishermen and their familiesFinlandFIFishermen studySerum, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
1256.8percentRoot6.8 percentRootRegressionAgeTurunen 2010
1598102031FemalesProfessional fishermen and their familiesFinlandFIFishermen studySerum, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
1396.8percentRoot6.8 percentRootRegressionAgeTurunen 2010
1606102041MalesSubjects with data on fish consumptionFinlandFIHealth 2000Serum, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
5773.9percentRoot3.9 percentRootRegressionAgeTurunen 2010
1614102051FemalesSubjects with data on fish consumptionFinlandFIHealth 2000Serum, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
7124.0percentRoot4.0 percentRootRegressionAgeTurunen 2010
1639100051AllNunavik Inuit adultsCanadaCANunavik Inuit Health SurveyRed blood cell membrane, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
6279.49percentRoot9.5 percentRootCrudeLucas 2010
164416392AllNunavik Inuit adultsCanadaCANunavik Inuit Health SurveyRed blood cell membrane, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
6279.16percentRoot9.2 percentRootCrudeLucas 2010
198099251AllNear-term pregnant womenCanadaCARed blood cell membrane (Phosphatidylcholine), fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
1053.180.98percentRoot3.2 percentRootCrudeFriesen 2010
199799261AllNear-term pregnant womenCanadaCARed blood cell membrane (Ethanolamine phosphoglyceride), fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
10511.72.55percentRoot11.7 percentRootCrudeFriesen 2010
216699271Children - MalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudyRed blood cell membrane, fasting and non-fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
1069.76percentRoot9.8 percentRootCrudeOkuda 2009
219299291Children - FemalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudyRed blood cell membrane, fasting and non-fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
859.73percentRoot9.7 percentRootCrudeOkuda 2009
221899281Adolescents - MalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudyRed blood cell membrane, fasting and non-fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
919.49percentRoot9.5 percentRootCrudeOkuda 2009
224499301Adolescents - FemalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudyRed blood cell membrane, fasting and non-fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
759.49percentRoot9.5 percentRootCrudeOkuda 2009
286028642AllControls in a coronary heart disease substudyUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)Plasma, fasting and non-fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
1302.940.75percentRoot2.9 percentRootCrudeSun 2007
288428882AllControls in a coronary heart disease substudyUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)Red blood cell, fasting and non-fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
1327.061.9percentRoot7.1 percentRootCrudeSun 2007
3159101891AllParticipants in a dietary validation studyAustraliaAUNambour Skin Cancer StudyPlasma, non-fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
4379.9221.7178.13ug/mL79.9 mg/L78.1 mg/LCrudeMcNaughton 2007
316031592AllParticipants in a dietary validation studyAustraliaAUNambour Skin Cancer StudyPlasma, non-fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
4377.2521.2573.95ug/mL77.3 mg/L74.0 mg/LCrudeMcNaughton 2007
336833652MalesParticipants in a case-cohort studyAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Plasma, fasting and non-fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
20486.71.5percentRoot6.7 percentRootCrudeHodge 2007
341034072FemalesParticipants in a case-cohort studyAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Plasma, fasting and non-fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
23916.61.4percentRoot6.6 percentRootCrudeHodge 2007
3667102061AllStaff and students from the University of WollongongAustraliaAURed blood cell membrane, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
536.571.27percentRoot6.6 percentRootCrudeSullivan 2006
3671102071AllStaff and students from the University of WollongongAustraliaAUPlasma, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
533.351.07percentRoot3.4 percentRootCrudeSullivan 2006
422642252Meat high consumers (Meat intake: >285 g/day)Men with different diets in Melbourne areaAustraliaAUStudy on diet and thrombotic risk factorcsPlasma, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
186.01.3mg/100 mL60.0 mg/LCrudeMann 2006
422842263Meat high consumers (Meat intake: >285 g/day)Men with different diets in Melbourne areaAustraliaAUStudy on diet and thrombotic risk factorcsPlasma, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
185.8mg/100 mL58.0 mg/LCrudeMann 2006
424442432Meat moderate consumers (Meat intake: <260 g/day)Men with different diets in Melbourne areaAustraliaAUStudy on diet and thrombotic risk factorcsPlasma, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
605.81.0mg/100 mL58.0 mg/LCrudeMann 2006
424642443Meat moderate consumers (Meat intake: <260 g/day)Men with different diets in Melbourne areaAustraliaAUStudy on diet and thrombotic risk factorcsPlasma, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
605.5mg/100 mL55.0 mg/LCrudeMann 2006
426242612Ovolacto-vegetariansMen with different diets in Melbourne areaAustraliaAUStudy on diet and thrombotic risk factorcsPlasma, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
434.21.0mg/100 mL42.0 mg/LCrudeMann 2006
426442623Ovolacto-vegetariansMen with different diets in Melbourne areaAustraliaAUStudy on diet and thrombotic risk factorcsPlasma, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
434.0mg/100 mL40.0 mg/LCrudeMann 2006
428042792VegansMen with different diets in Melbourne areaAustraliaAUStudy on diet and thrombotic risk factorcsPlasma, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
184.00.7mg/100 mL40.0 mg/LCrudeMann 2006
428242803VegansMen with different diets in Melbourne areaAustraliaAUStudy on diet and thrombotic risk factorcsPlasma, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
183.6mg/100 mL36.0 mg/LCrudeMann 2006
451745252AllControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRAdipose tissue, buttocksGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
Eicosatrienoic acid (ETE; cis-20:3n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
910.950.25percentRoot1.0 percentRootCrudeBaylin 2005
455645642AllControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRPlasma, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
Eicosatrienoic acid (ETE; cis-20:3n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
632.620.61percentRoot2.6 percentRootCrudeBaylin 2005
459546032AllControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRWhole blood, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
Eicosatrienoic acid (ETE; cis-20:3n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
624.540.87percentRoot4.5 percentRootCrudeBaylin 2005
4744100091AllCancer patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy in BostonUnited StatesUSPlasma, fasting and non-fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)13Z,16Z,19Z-Docosatrienoic acid (cis-22:3n-3)
DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
Eicosatrienoic acid (ETE; cis-20:3n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
1921.02.14.2percentRoot2.1 percentRootCrudeMeyerhardt 2005
487948681MalesMiddle-aged dietitiansJapanJPSQFFQ (Japanese Dieticians' Epidemiologic Study)Plasma, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
150.780.25mmol/L780000.0 nmol/LCrudeKuriki 2003
488148792MalesMiddle-aged dietitiansJapanJPSQFFQ (Japanese Dieticians' Epidemiologic Study)Plasma, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
150.680.23mmol/L680000.0 nmol/LCrudeKuriki 2003
491349021FemalesMiddle-aged dietitiansJapanJPSQFFQ (Japanese Dieticians' Epidemiologic Study)Plasma, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
790.890.25mmol/L890000.0 nmol/LCrudeKuriki 2003
491549132FemalesMiddle-aged dietitiansJapanJPSQFFQ (Japanese Dieticians' Epidemiologic Study)Plasma, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
790.810.24mmol/L810000.0 nmol/LCrudeKuriki 2003
494648681MalesMiddle-aged dietitiansJapanJPSQFFQ (Japanese Dieticians' Epidemiologic Study)Plasma, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
157.52.14percentRoot7.5 percentRootCrudeKuriki 2003
494849462MalesMiddle-aged dietitiansJapanJPSQFFQ (Japanese Dieticians' Epidemiologic Study)Plasma, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
156.582.02percentRoot6.6 percentRootCrudeKuriki 2003
497849021FemalesMiddle-aged dietitiansJapanJPSQFFQ (Japanese Dieticians' Epidemiologic Study)Plasma, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
798.341.73percentRoot8.3 percentRootCrudeKuriki 2003
498049782FemalesMiddle-aged dietitiansJapanJPSQFFQ (Japanese Dieticians' Epidemiologic Study)Plasma, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
797.591.74percentRoot7.6 percentRootCrudeKuriki 2003
5477101811AllControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRAdipose tissue, buttocksGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
Eicosatrienoic acid (ETE; cis-20:3n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
5030.990.2percentRoot1.0 percentRootCrudeBaylin 2002
5652102351AllPregnant womenMexicoMXA study on PUFAs and foetal neurodevelopmentRed blood cell membrane, unspecifiedGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
Eicosatrienoic acid (ETE; cis-20:3n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
3413.2591.4210.02417.344percentRoot13.3 percentRootCrudeParra 2002
5963100371Quartile 1 (Fish intake: <31 g/day)Adults from GipuzkoaSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Serum (fatty acids), fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
264.21.75.89nmol/L4.2 nmol/LCrudeAmiano 2001
5966100381Quartile 2 (Fish intake: 32 to 64 g/day)Adults from GipuzkoaSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Serum (fatty acids), fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
244.832.917.38nmol/L4.8 nmol/LCrudeAmiano 2001
5969100391Quartile 3 (Fish intake: 65 to 115 g/day)Adults from GipuzkoaSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Serum (fatty acids), fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
274.993.257.9nmol/L5.0 nmol/LCrudeAmiano 2001
5972100401Quartile 4 (Fish intake: >115 g/day)Adults from GipuzkoaSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Serum (fatty acids), fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
255.73.458.38nmol/L5.7 nmol/LCrudeAmiano 2001
5975100261Quartile 1 (Fish intake: <31 g/day)Adults from GipuzkoaSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Serum (LDL fraction phospholipids), fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
265.31percentRoot5.3 percentRootCrudeAmiano 2001
5978100271Quartile 2 (Fish intake: 32 to 64 g/day)Adults from GipuzkoaSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Serum (LDL fraction phospholipids), fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
245.85percentRoot5.9 percentRootCrudeAmiano 2001
5981100281Quartile 3 (Fish intake: 65 to 115 g/day)Adults from GipuzkoaSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Serum (LDL fraction phospholipids), fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
276.16percentRoot6.2 percentRootCrudeAmiano 2001
5984100291Quartile 4 (Fish intake: >115 g/day)Adults from GipuzkoaSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Serum (LDL fraction phospholipids), fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
257.12percentRoot7.1 percentRootCrudeAmiano 2001
5987100301Quartile 1 (Fish intake: <31 g/day)Adults from GipuzkoaSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Serum (LDL fraction cholesteryl esters), fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
262.0percentRoot2.0 percentRootCrudeAmiano 2001
5990100311Quartile 2 (Fish intake: 32 to 64 g/day)Adults from GipuzkoaSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Serum (LDL fraction cholesteryl esters), fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
242.32percentRoot2.3 percentRootCrudeAmiano 2001
5993100321Quartile 3 (Fish intake: 65 to 115 g/day)Adults from GipuzkoaSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Serum (LDL fraction cholesteryl esters), fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
272.35percentRoot2.4 percentRootCrudeAmiano 2001
5996100331Quartile 4 (Fish intake: >115 g/day)Adults from GipuzkoaSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Serum (LDL fraction cholesteryl esters), fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
252.8percentRoot2.8 percentRootCrudeAmiano 2001
634663452AllObese patients in a clinic from MurciaSpainESAdipose tissue, periumbilical (subcutaneous)GC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
761.010.71percentRoot1.0 percentRootCrudeGaraulet 2001
637163702AllObese patients in a clinic from MurciaSpainESAdipose tissue, intraabdominal (perivisceral)GC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
571.050.59percentRoot1.1 percentRootCrudeGaraulet 2001
639663952AllObese patients in a clinic from MurciaSpainESAdipose tissue, intraabdominal (omental)GC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
240.980.74percentRoot1.0 percentRootCrudeGaraulet 2001
663266312AllMiddle-aged menJapanJPJPHC Study Cohort Iwinter; summerSerum, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
8712.47.020.2percentRoot12.4 percentRootCrudeKobayashi 2001
664666452AllMiddle-aged menJapanJPJPHC Study Cohort IwinterSerum, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
872.10.92.0percentRoot2.1 percentRoot2.0 percentRootCrudeKobayashi 2001
666066592AllMiddle-aged menJapanJPJPHC Study Cohort IsummerSerum, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
872.10.82.1percentRoot2.1 percentRoot2.1 percentRootCrudeKobayashi 2001
802680271AllMiddle-aged women in the Trondheim areaNorwayNOParticipants in a cardiovascular screening by SHUS (National Health Screening Service)Serum, non-fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
23410.433.02percentRoot10.4 percentRootCrudeHjartaker 1997
805380271AllMiddle-aged women in the Trondheim areaNorwayNOParticipants in a cardiovascular screening by SHUS (National Health Screening Service)Serum, non-fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
234126.4840.36mg/L126.5 mg/LCrudeHjartaker 1997
849384922AllControls from a dietary intervention trialDenmarkDKAdipose tissue, buttocksGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
240.460.130.280.91percentRoot0.5 percentRootCrudeMarckmann 1995
935493512AllControls in a study on diet and breast cancer in Boston areaUnited StatesUSAdipose tissue, buttocksGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
1150.250.120.060.71percentRoot0.3 percentRootCrudeLondon 1991
18614186152AllWomenUnited StatesUSNYUWHS (New York University Women's Health Study)baselinePlasma, non-fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
466.141.98percentRoot6.1 percentRootUnspecifiedZeleniuch-Jacquotte 2000
18640186371AllNursesUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)baseline; 2 yearsRed blood cell, unspecifiedGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)403.74.96.6percentRoot4.9 percentRootCrudeKotsopoulos 2010

Intake values

IDParent IDDepthSubject groupPopulationCountryCountry codeCohortTime definitionIntake toolIntake food coverageIntake time coverageIntake assessmentCompoundCompound detailSupplement intakes included?Measurement sizeDetected (nb)Detected (%)Detected only?Arithmethic meanArithmethic SDGeometric meanGeometric SDMinMin (detected)Percentile_05Percentile_10Percentile_25MedianPercentile_75Percentile_90Percentile_95MaxInterquartile rangeMean 95% CI lowerMean 95% CI upperGMean 95% CI lowerGMean 95% CI upperUnitConverted arithmetic meanConverted geometric meanConverted medianAdjustment typeAdjusted onRegressed onExpressed asPublication
126912672AllMiddle-aged subjects in Southern ChinaChinaCNStudy on soyfood intake and cardiovascular risk factors in GuangzhouFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
1251.3931.286g/day1393.0 mg/dayCrudeZhang 2010
127712752AllMiddle-aged subjects in Southern ChinaChinaCNStudy on soyfood intake and cardiovascular risk factors in GuangzhouDietary record (3-day)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
1251.4551.088g/day1455.0 mg/dayCrudeZhang 2010
15670MalesProfessional fishermen and their familiesFinlandFIFishermen studybaselineWhole diet FFQ + Fineli Finnish Food Composition Database128-item1 yearFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
Docosatetraenoic acid (cis-22:4n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
Eicosatrienoic acid (ETE; cis-20:3n-3)
Heneicosapentaenoic acid (HPA; cis-21:5n-3)
Omega-3 arachidonic acid (ETA; cis-20:4n-3)
1251.3g/day1300.0 mg/dayRegressionAgeTurunen 2010
15860FemalesProfessional fishermen and their familiesFinlandFIFishermen studybaselineWhole diet FFQ + Fineli Finnish Food Composition Database128-item1 yearFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
Docosatetraenoic acid (cis-22:4n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
Eicosatrienoic acid (ETE; cis-20:3n-3)
Heneicosapentaenoic acid (HPA; cis-21:5n-3)
Omega-3 arachidonic acid (ETA; cis-20:4n-3)
1390.97g/day956.4 mg/dayRegressionAgeTurunen 2010
16050MalesSubjects with data on fish consumptionFinlandFIHealth 2000baselineWhole diet FFQ + Fineli Finnish Food Composition Database128-item1 yearFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
Docosatetraenoic acid (cis-22:4n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
Eicosatrienoic acid (ETE; cis-20:3n-3)
Heneicosapentaenoic acid (HPA; cis-21:5n-3)
Omega-3 arachidonic acid (ETA; cis-20:4n-3)
5770.85g/day838.1 mg/dayRegressionAgeTurunen 2010
16130FemalesSubjects with data on fish consumptionFinlandFIHealth 2000baselineWhole diet FFQ + Fineli Finnish Food Composition Database128-item1 yearFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
Docosatetraenoic acid (cis-22:4n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
Eicosatrienoic acid (ETE; cis-20:3n-3)
Heneicosapentaenoic acid (HPA; cis-21:5n-3)
Omega-3 arachidonic acid (ETA; cis-20:4n-3)
7120.81g/day798.6 mg/dayRegressionAgeTurunen 2010
21490Children - MalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudyDiet History Questionnaire (DHQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
116143.6mg/1000 kcal143.6 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyOkuda 2009
21750Children - FemalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudyDiet History Questionnaire (DHQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
100148.5mg/1000 kcal148.5 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyOkuda 2009
22010Adolescents - MalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudyDiet History Questionnaire (DHQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
98152.7mg/1000 kcal152.7 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyOkuda 2009
22270Adolescents - FemalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudyDiet History Questionnaire (DHQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
84147.2mg/1000 kcal147.2 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyOkuda 2009
290829122AllControls in a coronary heart disease substudyUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
3062.110.69percentRoot2.1 percentRootCrudeSun 2007
300429971MalesMiddle-aged participants in a nested case-control studyFranceFRSU.VI.MAX (SUpplementation en VItamines et Mineraux AntioXydants)Dietary record (1-day)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
2760.540.33g/day532.4 mg/dayCrudeAstorg 2008
301230051MalesMiddle-aged participants in a nested case-control studyFranceFRSU.VI.MAX (SUpplementation en VItamines et Mineraux AntioXydants)Dietary record (1-day)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
2760.20.12percentEnergy0.2 percentEnergyDensityEnergyAstorg 2008
303130241FemalesMiddle-aged participants in a nested case-control studyFranceFRSU.VI.MAX (SUpplementation en VItamines et Mineraux AntioXydants)Dietary record (1-day)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
2570.430.27g/day424.0 mg/dayCrudeAstorg 2008
303930321FemalesMiddle-aged participants in a nested case-control studyFranceFRSU.VI.MAX (SUpplementation en VItamines et Mineraux AntioXydants)Dietary record (1-day)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
2570.20.12percentEnergy0.2 percentEnergyDensityEnergyAstorg 2008
3174101901AllParticipants in a dietary validation studyAustraliaAUNambour Skin Cancer StudyFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
431.120.51.01g/day1120.0 mg/day1010.0 mg/dayRegressionEnergyMcNaughton 2007
317531742AllParticipants in a dietary validation studyAustraliaAUNambour Skin Cancer StudyFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
430.260.210.2g/day256.3 mg/day197.2 mg/dayRegressionEnergyMcNaughton 2007
3189101911AllParticipants in a dietary validation studyAustraliaAUNambour Skin Cancer StudyWeighed Dietary record (2-day)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
431.020.370.98g/day1020.0 mg/day966.2 mg/dayRegressionEnergyMcNaughton 2007
319031892AllParticipants in a dietary validation studyAustraliaAUNambour Skin Cancer StudyWeighed Dietary record (2-day)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
430.220.260.16g/day216.9 mg/day157.8 mg/dayRegressionEnergyMcNaughton 2007
333933362MalesParticipants in a case-cohort studyAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
20481.340.5g/day1340.0 mg/dayCrudeHodge 2007
335433512MalesParticipants in a case-cohort studyAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
20481.560.43percentRoot1.6 percentRootCrudeHodge 2007
338233792FemalesParticipants in a case-cohort studyAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
23911.20.48g/day1200.0 mg/dayCrudeHodge 2007
339633932FemalesParticipants in a case-cohort studyAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
23911.660.54percentRoot1.7 percentRootCrudeHodge 2007
36630AllStaff and students from the University of WollongongAustraliaAUFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
53259.0209.0212.0mg/day259.0 mg/day212.0 mg/dayCrudeSullivan 2006
39030AllPregnant women participant in a dietary validation studyDenmarkDKDNBC (Danish National Birth Cohort)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)No880.540.48g/day532.4 mg/dayCrudeMikkelsen 2006
39120AllPregnant women participant in a dietary validation studyDenmarkDKDNBC (Danish National Birth Cohort)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)No880.50.35g/10 MJ209.3 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyMikkelsen 2006
39210AllPregnant women participant in a dietary validation studyDenmarkDKDNBC (Danish National Birth Cohort)Weighed Dietary record (7-day)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)No880.430.4g/day424.0 mg/dayCrudeMikkelsen 2006
39290AllPregnant women participant in a dietary validation studyDenmarkDKDNBC (Danish National Birth Cohort)Weighed Dietary record (7-day)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)No880.370.33g/10 MJ154.9 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyMikkelsen 2006
415941582Meat high consumers (Meat intake: >285 g/day)Men with different diets in Melbourne areaAustraliaAUStudy on diet and thrombotic risk factorcsFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
162.250.74g/day2250.0 mg/dayCrudeMann 2006
416141593Meat high consumers (Meat intake: >285 g/day)Men with different diets in Melbourne areaAustraliaAUStudy on diet and thrombotic risk factorcsFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
160.290.15g/day285.9 mg/dayCrudeMann 2006
417541742Meat moderate consumers (Meat intake: <260 g/day)Men with different diets in Melbourne areaAustraliaAUStudy on diet and thrombotic risk factorcsFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
531.140.61g/day1140.0 mg/dayCrudeMann 2006
417741753Meat moderate consumers (Meat intake: <260 g/day)Men with different diets in Melbourne areaAustraliaAUStudy on diet and thrombotic risk factorcsFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
530.140.14g/day138.0 mg/dayCrudeMann 2006
419241902Ovolacto-vegetariansMen with different diets in Melbourne areaAustraliaAUStudy on diet and thrombotic risk factorcsFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
401.430.7g/day1430.0 mg/dayCrudeMann 2006
419441923Ovolacto-vegetariansMen with different diets in Melbourne areaAustraliaAUStudy on diet and thrombotic risk factorcsFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
400.010.01g/day9.9 mg/dayCrudeMann 2006
420842072VegansMen with different diets in Melbourne areaAustraliaAUStudy on diet and thrombotic risk factorcsFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
171.220.75g/day1220.0 mg/dayCrudeMann 2006
421042083VegansMen with different diets in Melbourne areaAustraliaAUStudy on diet and thrombotic risk factorcsFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
170.010.0g/day9.9 mg/dayCrudeMann 2006
447844862AllControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
Eicosatrienoic acid (ETE; cis-20:3n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
2002.130.74percentRoot2.1 percentRootRegressionEnergy ?Baylin 2005
486248511MalesMiddle-aged dietitiansJapanJPSQFFQ (Japanese Dieticians' Epidemiologic Study)Weighed Dietary record (7-day)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
153101.0973.0mg/day3101.0 mg/dayCrudeKuriki 2003
486448622MalesMiddle-aged dietitiansJapanJPSQFFQ (Japanese Dieticians' Epidemiologic Study)Weighed Dietary record (7-day)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
151092.0560.0mg/day1092.0 mg/dayCrudeKuriki 2003
489648851FemalesMiddle-aged dietitiansJapanJPSQFFQ (Japanese Dieticians' Epidemiologic Study)Weighed Dietary record (7-day)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
792560.0653.0mg/day2560.0 mg/dayCrudeKuriki 2003
489848962FemalesMiddle-aged dietitiansJapanJPSQFFQ (Japanese Dieticians' Epidemiologic Study)Weighed Dietary record (7-day)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
79971.0459.0mg/day971.0 mg/dayCrudeKuriki 2003
493048511MalesMiddle-aged dietitiansJapanJPSQFFQ (Japanese Dieticians' Epidemiologic Study)Weighed Dietary record (7-day)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
156.241.65percentRoot6.2 percentRootCrudeKuriki 2003
493249302MalesMiddle-aged dietitiansJapanJPSQFFQ (Japanese Dieticians' Epidemiologic Study)Weighed Dietary record (7-day)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
152.221.14percentRoot2.2 percentRootCrudeKuriki 2003
496248851FemalesMiddle-aged dietitiansJapanJPSQFFQ (Japanese Dieticians' Epidemiologic Study)Weighed Dietary record (7-day)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
795.621.17percentRoot5.6 percentRootCrudeKuriki 2003
496449622FemalesMiddle-aged dietitiansJapanJPSQFFQ (Japanese Dieticians' Epidemiologic Study)Weighed Dietary record (7-day)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
792.150.99percentRoot2.2 percentRootCrudeKuriki 2003
551899091AllControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
5031.530.43percentRoot1.5 percentRootCrudeBaylin 2002
555699091AllControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
5031.270.36g/day1270.0 mg/dayRegressionEnergyBaylin 2002
5933100221Quartile 1 (Fish intake: <31 g/day)Adults from GipuzkoaSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
261.00.25g/day986.0 mg/dayRegressionEnergyAmiano 2001
5941100231Quartile 2 (Fish intake: 32 to 64 g/day)Adults from GipuzkoaSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
241.490.48g/day1490.0 mg/dayRegressionEnergyAmiano 2001
5949100241Quartile 3 (Fish intake: 65 to 115 g/day)Adults from GipuzkoaSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
271.560.5g/day1560.0 mg/dayRegressionEnergyAmiano 2001
5957100251Quartile 4 (Fish intake: >115 g/day)Adults from GipuzkoaSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
252.10.69g/day2100.0 mg/dayRegressionEnergyAmiano 2001
641264112AllObese patients in a clinic from MurciaSpainESDietary record (7-day)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
762.111.73percentRoot2.1 percentRootCrudeGaraulet 2001
660466032AllMiddle-aged menJapanJPJPHC Study Cohort IDietary record (7-day)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
873.51.68.7g/day3500.0 mg/dayCrudeKobayashi 2001
661866172AllMiddle-aged menJapanJPJPHC Study Cohort IDietary record (7-day)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
876.84.011.4percentRoot6.8 percentRootCrudeKobayashi 2001
8485105831AllControls from a dietary intervention trialDenmarkDKWeighed Dietary record (7-day)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
240.560.380.01.39g/day552.1 mg/dayCrudeMarckmann 1995
86370AllPregnant women in ArhusDenmarkDKFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
1350.23g/day226.8 mg/dayCrudeOlsen 1995
936793642AllControls in a study on diet and breast cancer in Boston areaUnited StatesUSFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)1150.250.23g/day246.5 mg/dayCrudeLondon 1991
938093772AllControls in a study on diet and breast cancer in Boston areaUnited StatesUSFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)1150.460.43percentRoot0.5 percentRootCrudeLondon 1991
98950AllMiddle-aged women in QuebecCanadaCARandomized clinical trial on ethyl-EPA supplementationFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
65212.0164.00.0184.0758.0mg/day212.0 mg/day184.0 mg/dayCrudeLucas 2009
10582105782AllControls from a dietary intervention trialDenmarkDKWeighed Dietary record (7-day)Fatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
240.180.120.00.4percentEnergy0.2 percentEnergyDensityEnergyMarckmann 1995

Correlation values

Reproducibility values

IDMst. IDSubject groupPopulationCountryCountry codeCohortTime definitionBiological specimenExperimental methodBiomarkerBiomarker detailArithmetic meanGeometric meanMedianUnitAdjusted onReproducibility sizeICCICC 95% CI lowerICC 95% CI upperCV% WSCV% BSVAR WSVAR BSPublication
27118587AllWomenUnited StatesUSNYUWHS (New York University Women's Health Study)baseline; 1 year; 2 yearsPlasma, non-fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
percentRoot460.660.530.79Zeleniuch-Jacquotte 2000
29618640AllNursesUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)baseline; 2 yearsRed blood cell, unspecifiedGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)4.9percentRoot400.680.490.8210.515.3Kotsopoulos 2010
3286632AllMiddle-aged menJapanJPJPHC Study Cohort Iwinter; summerSerum, fastingGC-FIDFatty acids, n3-polyunsaturated (n3-PUFA)DHA (cis-22:6n-3)
DPA (cis-22:5n-3)
EPA (cis-20:5n-3)
alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA; cis-18:3n-3)
12.4percentRoot870.76Kobayashi 2001