Genistein

ID3
NameGenistein
Synonyms
StructureThumb
Description
GroupPolyphenols
Sub-groupIsoflavones
Exposure sourceDiet
Use
CAS number446-72-0
PubChem ID5280961
ChEBI ID28088
FooDB IDFDB011828
HMDB IDHMDB03217

Biomarker measurements

Biomarker concentration values

IDParent IDDepthSubject groupPopulationCountryCountry codeCohortTime definitionBiospecimenAnalytical methodBiomarkerBiomarker detailMeasurement sizeDetected (nb)Detected (%)Detected only?Arithmethic meanArithmethic SDGeometric meanGeometric SDMinMin (detected)Percentile_05Percentile_10Percentile_25MedianPercentile_75Percentile_90Percentile_95MaxInterquartile rangeMean 95% CI lowerMean 95% CI upperGMean 95% CI lowerGMean 95% CI upperUnitConverted arithmetic meanConverted geometric meanConverted medianAdjustment typeAdjusted onRegressed onExpressed asPublication
48501AllControls in a case-control study on prostate cancer inherited susceptibility and dietUnited KingdomGBPCANDIETSerum, non-fastingGC-ID-MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein1960.014.1233.7964.93316.02nmol/L33.8 nmol/LCrudeHeald 2006
70771Quartile 1 (Isoflavone intake: 0.06 to 3.67 mg/day)Pubertal girlsKorea, Republic ofKRUrine, overnightLC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein121.9nmol/mg1.9 umol/gDensityCreatinineKim 2010
79851Quartile 4 (Isoflavone intake: 9.29 to 51.59 mg/day)Pubertal girlsKorea, Republic ofKRUrine, overnightLC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein125.7nmol/mg5.7 umol/gDensityCreatinineKim 2010
1090AllWomen in a high-risk program for breast or ovarian cancerUnited StatesUSFRAP (Family Risk Assessment Program)Urine, 24-hGC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein27136.4161.225.667.4201.4ng/mg136.4 ug/g67.4 ug/gDensityCreatinineTseng 2008
1140AllWomen in a high-risk program for breast or ovarian cancerUnited StatesUSFRAP (Family Risk Assessment Program)Urine, overnightGC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein27250.5476.333.577.2264.5ng/mg250.5 ug/g77.2 ug/gDensityCreatinineTseng 2008
1601581AllParticipants in previous studies on phyto-oestrogen intakeUnited KingdomGBUrine, 24-hLC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein140.73mg/day0.7 mg/dayCrudeRitchie 2004
1661641AllParticipants in previous studies on phyto-oestrogen intakeUnited KingdomGBPlasma, non-fastingLC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein1166.47ng/mL0.1 mg/LCrudeRitchie 2004
3070Soy intake group 1 (Isoflavone intake: <1 mg/day )Premenopausal womenUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Oxford (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Plasma, unspecifiedTime-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein2027.814.30.0163.07.4227.4nmol/L27.8 nmol/L14.3 nmol/LCrudeVerkasalo 2001
3090Soy intake group 2 (Isoflavone intake: 18.4 to 23.4 mg/day)Premenopausal womenUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Oxford (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Plasma, unspecifiedTime-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein2058.816.58.5731.6nmol/L58.8 nmol/L16.5 nmol/LCrudeVerkasalo 2001
3110Soy intake group 3 (Isoflavone intake: 14.2 to 37.6 mg/day)Premenopausal womenUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Oxford (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Plasma, unspecifiedTime-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein20285.0119.0149.0420.061.8228.0nmol/L285.0 nmol/L119.0 nmol/LCrudeVerkasalo 2001
3130Soy intake group 4 (Isoflavone intake: >38.4 mg/day)Premenopausal womenUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Oxford (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Plasma, unspecifiedTime-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein20525.0378.0390.0661.0197.0726.0nmol/L525.0 nmol/L378.0 nmol/LCrudeVerkasalo 2001
7127161AllGeneral adult populationUnited StatesUSNHANES 1999-2002Urine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein29083.30.1ng/mL0.0 mg/LCrudeChun 2009
7287302AllPremenopausal womenCanadaCAProspective study investigating risk factors for osteoporosisUrine, 24-hGC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein263.04.80.00.7416.9umol/day3.0 umol/day0.7 umol/dayCrudeFrench 2007
7400AllPostmenopausal womenUnited StatesUSbaseline; 1 weekPlasma, fastingLC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein9612.24.31.910.9420.9nmol/L12.2 nmol/L10.9 nmol/LCrudeFrankenfeld 2003
7490AllGeneral populationJapanJPJPHC Study Cohort ISerum, fastingTime-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein202475.3510.4566.7333.6176.4nmol/L475.3 nmol/L333.6 nmol/LCrudeYamamoto 2001
7500AllGeneral populationJapanJPJPHC Study Cohort IUrine, 24-hHPLC after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein9314.214.120.49.94.3umol/day14.2 umol/day9.9 umol/dayCrudeYamamoto 2001
9570AllAdults in the Seattle metropolitan areaUnited StatesUSParticipants in a feeding studyPlasma, fastingLC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein7716.91.912.81304.4nmol/L16.9 nmol/L12.8 nmol/LCrudeFrankenfeld 2002
252325211AllMidle-aged and elderly womenChinaCNSWHS (Shanghai Women's Health Study)Urine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein21652.070.0240.130.250.792.416.5414.7723.07182.81.932.22nmol/mg2.1 umol/g2.4 umol/gDensityCreatinineWu 2012
281528181All [by intake from recall]Participants in a dietary calibration studyUnited StatesUSAHS-2 (Adventist Health Study-2)Urine, overnightLC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein100802.030.021204.0pmol/mg0.8 umol/gDensityCreatinineJaceldo-Siegl 2008
282728301Soy users (recall)Participants in a dietary calibration studyUnited StatesUSAHS-2 (Adventist Health Study-2)Urine, overnightLC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein581703.082.035607.0pmol/mg1.7 umol/gDensityCreatinineJaceldo-Siegl 2008
47490AllControls in a case-control study on diet and breast cancerUnited KingdomGBPlasma, fastingTime-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein5818.320.7nmol/L18.3 nmol/LCrudeBhakta 2005
479848121AllCases and controls in a case-control study on breast cancer and dietUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Norfolk (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Urine, spotGC-ID-MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein3338.62.93.87.919.3489.9ug/mmol8600.0 ug/mol7900.0 ug/molDensityCreatinineGrace 2004
480548141AllCases and controls in a case-control study on breast cancer and dietUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Norfolk (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Serum, unspecifiedLC-ID-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein2844.12.71.33.58.5159.7ng/mL0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/LCrudeGrace 2004
694169452All [by intake]Members of the University of Minnesota communityUnited StatesUSUrine, 24-hGC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein980.551.220.220.250.037.18umol/day0.5 umol/day0.2 umol/dayCrudeLampe 1999
696169652High intake (Vegetables and fruits intake: ≥ 5 servings/day)Members of the University of Minnesota communityUnited StatesUSUrine, 24-hGC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein490.240.3umol/day0.2 umol/dayCrudeLampe 1999
697169752Low intake (Vegetables and fruits intake: ≤ 2 servings/day)Members of the University of Minnesota communityUnited StatesUSUrine, 24-hGC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein490.210.2umol/day0.2 umol/dayCrudeLampe 1999
71330AllMiddle-aged women from Tohoku regionJapanJPPlasma, fastingTime-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein106307.5325.425.3113.7206.1393.02459.7nmol/L307.5 nmol/L206.1 nmol/LCrudeArai 2000
71350AllMiddle-aged women from Tohoku regionJapanJPUrine, 24-hHPLC after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein10513.210.40.25.210.818.562.4umol/day13.2 umol/day10.8 umol/dayCrudeArai 2000
71430Equol non-metabolizersMiddle-aged women from Tohoku regionJapanJPPlasma, fastingTime-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein53278.3nmol/L278.3 nmol/LCrudeArai 2000
71450Equol non-metabolizersMiddle-aged women from Tohoku regionJapanJPUrine, 24-hHPLC after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein5311.3umol/day11.3 umol/dayCrudeArai 2000
71500Equol metabolizersMiddle-aged women from Tohoku regionJapanJPPlasma, fastingTime-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein53181.4nmol/L181.4 nmol/LCrudeArai 2000
71520Equol metabolizersMiddle-aged women from Tohoku regionJapanJPUrine, 24-hHPLC after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein5310.6umol/day10.6 umol/dayCrudeArai 2000
781278101ChinesesWomen from two large mammography clinics in HonoluluUnited StatesUS1 dayUrine, overnightHPLC after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein1365.0105.0nmol/h1.6 umol/dayCrudeMaskarinec 1998
781978171FilipinosWomen from two large mammography clinics in HonoluluUnited StatesUS1 dayUrine, overnightHPLC after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein712.017.0nmol/h0.3 umol/dayCrudeMaskarinec 1998
782678241Native HawaiiansWomen from two large mammography clinics in HonoluluUnited StatesUS1 dayUrine, overnightHPLC after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein1172.0162.0nmol/h1.7 umol/dayCrudeMaskarinec 1998
783378311JapanesesWomen from two large mammography clinics in HonoluluUnited StatesUS1 dayUrine, overnightHPLC after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein25134.0186.0nmol/h3.2 umol/dayCrudeMaskarinec 1998
784078381CaucasiansWomen from two large mammography clinics in HonoluluUnited StatesUS1 dayUrine, overnightHPLC after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein4228.062.0nmol/h0.7 umol/dayCrudeMaskarinec 1998
784778451OthersWomen from two large mammography clinics in HonoluluUnited StatesUS1 dayUrine, overnightHPLC after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein422.035.0nmol/h0.5 umol/dayCrudeMaskarinec 1998
186440AllNursesUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)baseline; 2 yearsPlasma, unspecifiedLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein400.42.750.5nmol/L2.7 nmol/LCrudeKotsopoulos 2010
186520AllNursesUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)baseline; 2 yearsUrine, first morning spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein450.010.111.12nmol/mg0.1 umol/gDensityCreatinineKotsopoulos 2010
186950AllMinority childrenUnited StatesUSbaseline; 2 weeks; 1 month; 2 months, 3 months; 6 monthsUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein3532.31.023.2601.71723.0ug/g32.3 ug/g23.2 ug/gDensityCreatinineTeitelbaum 2008
189280AllWomenUnited StatesUSNYUWHS (New York University Women's Health Study)baseline; 1 year; 2 yearsSerum, unspecifiedGC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein605.7nmol/L5.7 nmol/LCrudeZeleniuch-Jacquotte 1998
189360AllWomenUnited StatesUSNYUWHS (New York University Women's Health Study)baselineSerum, unspecifiedGC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein6092.00.02.629.2520.0430.0nmol/L9.3 nmol/LCrudeZeleniuch-Jacquotte 1998
197740AllGirls from New York City, New York, Cincinnati, Ohio, and northern CaliforniaUnited StatesUSUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein90100.060.45.41.250.15360.0ug/L0.1 mg/L0.1 mg/LCrudeWolff 2007

Intake values

IDParent IDDepthSubject groupPopulationCountryCountry codeCohortTime definitionIntake toolIntake food coverageIntake time coverageIntake assessmentCompoundCompound detailSupplement intakes included?Measurement sizeDetected (nb)Detected (%)Detected only?Arithmethic meanArithmethic SDGeometric meanGeometric SDMinMin (detected)Percentile_05Percentile_10Percentile_25MedianPercentile_75Percentile_90Percentile_95MaxInterquartile rangeMean 95% CI lowerMean 95% CI upperGMean 95% CI lowerGMean 95% CI upperUnitConverted arithmetic meanConverted geometric meanConverted medianAdjustment typeAdjusted onRegressed onExpressed asPublication
341241Soy consumersCases and controls in a case-control study on uterine fibroidsUnited StatesUSGHC (Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)Genistein7630.62.0752.927.034.5nmol/day0.0 umol/dayCrudeAtkinson 2002
360All [by intake]Cases and controls in a case-control study on uterine fibroidsUnited StatesUSGHC (Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)Genistein3631.10.0752.90.81.4nmol/day0.0 umol/dayCrudeAtkinson 2002
380Soy consumersCases and controls in a case-control study on uterine fibroidsUnited StatesUSGHC (Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)Genistein76104.67.02635.292.3118.4nmol/week0.0 umol/dayCrudeAtkinson 2002
400All [by intake]Cases and controls in a case-control study on uterine fibroidsUnited StatesUSGHC (Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)Genistein3631.70.02635.21.22.3nmol/week0.0 umol/dayCrudeAtkinson 2002
421251Soy consumersCases and controls in a case-control study on uterine fibroidsUnited StatesUSGHC (Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Genistein10524.70.91014.719.431.3nmol/week0.0 umol/dayCrudeAtkinson 2002
61681Quartile 1 (Isoflavone intake: 0.06 to 3.67 mg/day)Pubertal girlsKorea, Republic ofKRDietary record (3-day)Genistein121.40.5mg/day1.4 mg/dayCrudeKim 2010
65641Quartile 4 (Isoflavone intake: 9.29 to 51.59 mg/day)Pubertal girlsKorea, Republic ofKRDietary record (3-day)Genistein126.21.6mg/day6.2 mg/dayCrudeKim 2010
1040AllWomen in a high-risk program for breast or ovarian cancerUnited StatesUSFRAP (Family Risk Assessment Program)baselineSFQ (Soy Food Questionnaire) + in-lab isoflavone database26-itemFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Genistein273.912.20.0060.0132.0mg/day3.9 mg/day0.0 mg/dayCrudeTseng 2008
1070AllWomen in a high-risk program for breast or ovarian cancerUnited StatesUSFRAP (Family Risk Assessment Program)baselineDAF (Harvard Diet Assessment Form) + in-lab isoflavone database126-itemFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Genistein272.24.60.0530.1293.438mg/day2.2 mg/day0.1 mg/dayCrudeTseng 2008
1571551AllParticipants in previous studies on phyto-oestrogen intakeUnited KingdomGBDuplicate diet (LC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysis)Genistein146.22mg/day6.2 mg/dayCrudeRitchie 2004
1621631AllParticipants in previous studies on phyto-oestrogen intakeUnited KingdomGBDuplicate diet (LC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysis)Genistein116.69mg/day6.7 mg/dayCrudeRitchie 2004
2022041Dietary validation studySubjects in a non-Asian populationUnited StatesUSCTS (California Teachers Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Genistein1850.70.138.9mg/day0.7 mg/dayCrudeHorn-Ross 2006
2112131Dietary validation studySubjects in a non-Asian populationUnited StatesUSCTS (California Teachers Study)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)Genistein1950.80.123.4mg/day0.8 mg/dayCrudeHorn-Ross 2006
3663741Soy intake group 1 (Isoflavone intake: <1 mg/day )Premenopausal womenUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Oxford (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Genistein200.20.0mg/day0.2 mg/dayCrudeVerkasalo 2001
3673751Soy intake group 1 (Isoflavone intake: <1 mg/day )Premenopausal womenUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Oxford (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Dietary record (7-day)Genistein200.61.6mg/day0.6 mg/dayCrudeVerkasalo 2001
3683761Soy intake group 2 (Isoflavone intake: 18.4 to 23.4 mg/day)Premenopausal womenUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Oxford (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Genistein2020.02.3mg/day20.0 mg/dayCrudeVerkasalo 2001
3693771Soy intake group 3 (Isoflavone intake: 14.2 to 37.6 mg/day)Premenopausal womenUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Oxford (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Genistein203.00.8mg/day3.0 mg/dayCrudeVerkasalo 2001
3703781Soy intake group 4 (Isoflavone intake: >38.4 mg/day)Premenopausal womenUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Oxford (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Genistein2012.94.5mg/day12.9 mg/dayCrudeVerkasalo 2001
3713791Soy intake group 2 (Isoflavone intake: 18.4 to 23.4 mg/day)Premenopausal womenUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Oxford (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Dietary record (7-day)Genistein204.44.6mg/day4.4 mg/dayCrudeVerkasalo 2001
3723801Soy intake group 3 (Isoflavone intake: 14.2 to 37.6 mg/day)Premenopausal womenUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Oxford (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Dietary record (7-day)Genistein208.511.4mg/day8.5 mg/dayCrudeVerkasalo 2001
3733811Soy intake group 4 (Isoflavone intake: >38.4 mg/day)Premenopausal womenUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Oxford (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Dietary record (7-day)Genistein2016.911.9mg/day16.9 mg/dayCrudeVerkasalo 2001
7047071AllGeneral adult populationUnited StatesUSNHANES 1999-200224-h Dietary recall (1-day)Genistein29080.60.1mg/day0.6 mg/dayCrudeChun 2009
7087111AllGeneral adult populationUnited StatesUSNHANES 1999-200224-h Dietary recall (1-day)Genistein29080.40.1mg/1000 kcal0.4 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyChun 2009
7360AllPostmenopausal womenUnited StatesUSbaselinesoy + litterature + USDA20-item3 monthsFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Genistein968.17.70.07.5613.7mg/week1.2 mg/day1.1 mg/dayCrudeFrankenfeld 2003
7370AllPostmenopausal womenUnited StatesUSbaselinecomprehensive + litterature + USDA122-item3 monthsFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Genistein962.53.80.00.0104.3mg/week0.4 mg/day0.0 mg/dayCrudeFrankenfeld 2003
7470AllGeneral populationJapanJPJPHC Study Cohort IFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Genistein21531.424.040.725.515.4mg/day31.4 mg/day25.5 mg/dayCrudeYamamoto 2001
7480AllGeneral populationJapanJPJPHC Study Cohort IDietary record (7-day)Genistein21523.410.530.222.315.8mg/day23.4 mg/day22.3 mg/dayCrudeYamamoto 2001
9089141Soy consumers (Soy intake: ≥ once a week)Cases and controls in a case-control study on uterine fibroidsUnited StatesUSGHC (Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Genistein3981.39.01014.770.294.1nmol/week0.0 umol/dayCrudeAtkinson 2002
9109151Soy consumers (Soy intake: ≥ once or twice a month)Cases and controls in a case-control study on uterine fibroidsUnited StatesUSGHC (Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Genistein6611.90.964.410.513.4nmol/week0.0 umol/dayCrudeAtkinson 2002
9530AllAdults in the Seattle metropolitan areaUnited StatesUSParticipants in a feeding studybaselineSoy-FFQ40-item3 monthsFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Genistein7711.90.011.1550.3mg/week1.7 mg/day1.6 mg/dayCrudeFrankenfeld 2002
9550AllAdults in the Seattle metropolitan areaUnited StatesUSParticipants in a feeding studybaselineWHI-FFQ122-item3 monthsFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Genistein626.50.03.0187.8mg/week0.9 mg/day0.4 mg/dayCrudeFrankenfeld 2002
47520AllControls in a case-control study on diet and breast cancerUnited KingdomGB24-h Dietary recall (1-day)Genistein58245.0791.9ug/day0.2 mg/dayCrudeBhakta 2005
47550AllControls in a case-control study on diet and breast cancerUnited KingdomGBFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)Genistein58286.5587.5ug/day0.3 mg/dayCrudeBhakta 2005
479548111AllCases and controls in a case-control study on breast cancer and dietUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Norfolk (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Dietary record (7-day)Genistein331243.42.23.5167.4247.2350.87675.4ug/day0.2 mg/day0.2 mg/dayCrudeGrace 2004
71310AllMiddle-aged women from Tohoku regionJapanJPDietary record (3-day)Genistein106111.653.230.671.5103.2139.1282.8umol/day111.6 umol/day103.2 umol/dayRegressionEnergy ?Arai 2000
71410Equol non-metabolizersMiddle-aged women from Tohoku regionJapanJPDietary record (3-day)Genistein53106.2umol/day106.2 umol/dayRegressionEnergy ?Arai 2000
71480Equol metabolizersMiddle-aged women from Tohoku regionJapanJPDietary record (3-day)Genistein5393.0umol/day93.0 umol/dayRegressionEnergy ?Arai 2000

Correlation values

Reproducibility values

IDMst. IDSubject groupPopulationCountryCountry codeCohortTime definitionBiological specimenExperimental methodBiomarkerBiomarker detailArithmetic meanGeometric meanMedianUnitAdjusted onReproducibility sizeICCICC 95% CI lowerICC 95% CI upperCV% WSCV% BSVAR WSVAR BSPublication
29740AllPostmenopausal womenUnited StatesUSbaseline; 1 weekPlasma, fastingLC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein12.210.9nmol/L960.93Frankenfeld 2003
30018644AllNursesUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)baseline; 2 yearsPlasma, unspecifiedLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein2.7nmol/L400.030.01.0100.031.1Kotsopoulos 2010
30418652AllNursesUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)baseline; 2 yearsUrine, first morning spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein0.11nmol/mgCreatinine450.020.01.0100.00.0Kotsopoulos 2010
35018695AllMinority childrenUnited StatesUSbaseline; 2 weeks; 1 month; 2 months, 3 months; 6 monthsUrine, spotLC-MS/MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein32.323.2ug/gCreatinine350.331.430.7Teitelbaum 2008
53318928AllWomenUnited StatesUSNYUWHS (New York University Women's Health Study)baseline; 1 year; 2 yearsSerum, unspecifiedGC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysisGenistein5.7nmol/L600.220.060.481.290.354Zeleniuch-Jacquotte 1998