alpha-Carotene

ID83
Namealpha-Carotene
Synonyms[Vitamin A] / all-trans-alpha-Carotene
StructureThumb
Description
GroupCarotenoids
Sub-groupCarotenes
Exposure sourceDiet
UseVitamins
CAS number7488-99-5
PubChem ID4369188
ChEBI ID28425
FooDB IDFDB013716
HMDB IDHMDB03993

Biomarker measurements

Biomarker concentration values

IDParent IDDepthSubject groupPopulationCountryCountry codeCohortTime definitionBiospecimenAnalytical methodBiomarkerBiomarker detailMeasurement sizeDetected (nb)Detected (%)Detected only?Arithmethic meanArithmethic SDGeometric meanGeometric SDMinMin (detected)Percentile_05Percentile_10Percentile_25MedianPercentile_75Percentile_90Percentile_95MaxInterquartile rangeMean 95% CI lowerMean 95% CI upperGMean 95% CI lowerGMean 95% CI upperUnitConverted arithmetic meanConverted geometric meanConverted medianAdjustment typeAdjusted onRegressed onExpressed asPublication
11030African AmericansAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics StudyPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene1240.060.050.030.1umol/L60.0 nmol/L50.0 nmol/LCrudeArab 2011
11080WhitesAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics StudyPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene1260.080.080.050.12umol/L80.0 nmol/L80.0 nmol/LCrudeArab 2011
12350MalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyJapanJPJPHC StudySerum, fastingMissingalpha-Carotene890.070.04mg/mL70.0 mg/LCrudeKobayashi 2011
12420FemalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyJapanJPJPHC StudySerum, fastingMissingalpha-Carotene1010.10.05mg/mL100.0 mg/LCrudeKobayashi 2011
18600African Americans - FemalesAfrican Americans and non-Hispanic whitesUnited StatesUSSCCS (Southern Community Cohort Study)Plasma, non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene634.44.8ug/dL0.0 mg/LCrudeSignorello 2010
18670African Americans - MalesAfrican Americans and non-Hispanic whitesUnited StatesUSSCCS (Southern Community Cohort Study)Plasma, non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene622.72.6ug/dL0.0 mg/LCrudeSignorello 2010
18740Whites - FemalesAfrican Americans and non-Hispanic whitesUnited StatesUSSCCS (Southern Community Cohort Study)Plasma, non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene642.72.0ug/dL0.0 mg/LCrudeSignorello 2010
18810Whites - MalesAfrican Americans and non-Hispanic whitesUnited StatesUSSCCS (Southern Community Cohort Study)Plasma, non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene663.74.8ug/dL0.0 mg/LCrudeSignorello 2010
20140MalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Plasma, unspecifiedHPLCalpha-Carotene10860.040.080.13umol/L80.0 nmol/LCrudeHodge 2009
20220FemalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Plasma, unspecifiedHPLCalpha-Carotene20240.070.110.17umol/L110.0 nmol/LCrudeHodge 2009
20440MalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Plasma, unspecifiedHPLCalpha-Carotene10868.014.023.7umol/mol14.0 umol/molDensityCholesterolHodge 2009
20520FemalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Plasma, unspecifiedHPLCalpha-Carotene202412.520.532.1umol/mol20.5 umol/molDensityCholesterolHodge 2009
21100WhitesWhites and African Americans in North CarolinaUnited StatesUSDISH (DIet, Supplements, and Health Study)Plasma, semi-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene810.0280.0510.085umol/L51.0 nmol/LCrudeSatia 2009
21340African AmericansWhites and African Americans in North CarolinaUnited StatesUSDISH (DIet, Supplements, and Health Study)Plasma, semi-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene830.0190.0310.046umol/L31.0 nmol/LCrudeSatia 2009
215622462Children - MalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudySerum, fasting and non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene1160.117umol/L117.0 nmol/LCrudeOkuda 2009
218222482Children - FemalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudySerum, fasting and non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene1000.108umol/L108.0 nmol/LCrudeOkuda 2009
220822502Adolescents - MalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudySerum, fasting and non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene980.093umol/L93.0 nmol/LCrudeOkuda 2009
223422522Adolescents - FemalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudySerum, fasting and non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene840.11umol/L110.0 nmol/LCrudeOkuda 2009
22690Normal weightOverweight and normal weight children from the Hunter regionAustraliaAUPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene380.120.09umol/L120.0 nmol/LCrudeBurrows 2009
22810OverweightOverweight and normal weight children from the Hunter regionAustraliaAUHIKCUPS (Hunter Illawarra Kids Challenge Using Parent Support)Plasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene200.080.06umol/L80.0 nmol/LCrudeBurrows 2009
22930ObeseOverweight and normal weight children from the Hunter regionAustraliaAUHIKCUPS (Hunter Illawarra Kids Challenge Using Parent Support)Plasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene350.050.04umol/L50.0 nmol/LCrudeBurrows 2009
23050HIKCUPSOverweight and normal weight children from the Hunter regionAustraliaAUHIKCUPS (Hunter Illawarra Kids Challenge Using Parent Support)Plasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene550.070.07umol/L70.0 nmol/LCrudeBurrows 2009
23090MalesAfrican American participants in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS)United StatesUSJHS (Jackson Heart Study)Serum, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene1550.07umol/L70.0 nmol/LCrudeTalegawkar 2008
23150FemalesAfrican American participants in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS)United StatesUSJHS (Jackson Heart Study)Serum, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene2470.07umol/L70.0 nmol/LCrudeTalegawkar 2008
239424013Sub-study IParticipants in a dietary validation studyNorwayNOPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene14757.098.0168.0nmol/L98.0 nmol/LCrudeCarlsen 2011
241524211Sub-study IIParticipants in a dietary validation studyNorwayNOPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene8572.0112.0174.0nmol/L112.0 nmol/LCrudeCarlsen 2011
255026231AllGeneral adult population in BostonUnited StatesUSSerum, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene2598.6nmol/L98.6 nmol/LCrudeChung 2009
256725851AllGeneral adult population in BostonUnited StatesUSAdipose tissue, abdomenHPLCalpha-Carotene25280.5pmol/mg0.3 umol/gDensitySpecimen dry weightChung 2009
258626031AllGeneral adult population in BostonUnited StatesUSAdipose tissue, buttocksHPLCalpha-Carotene25166.7pmol/mg0.2 umol/gDensitySpecimen dry weightChung 2009
260426211AllGeneral adult population in BostonUnited StatesUSAdipose tissue, thighHPLCalpha-Carotene25127.3pmol/mg0.1 umol/gDensitySpecimen dry weightChung 2009
29250MalesElderly subjects in the province of AlicanteSpainESEUREYE (European Eye)Plasma, fasting and non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene2520.0610.07umol/L61.0 nmol/LCrudeVioque 2007
29370FemalesElderly subjects in the province of AlicanteSpainESEUREYE (European Eye)Plasma, fasting and non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene2930.0960.14umol/L96.0 nmol/LCrudeVioque 2007
29510Normal weight (BMI: <25kg/m2)Elderly subjects in the province of AlicanteSpainESEUREYE (European Eye)Plasma, fasting and non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene850.140.23umol/L140.0 nmol/LCrudeVioque 2007
29650Overweight (BMI: 25 to 30 kg/m2)Elderly subjects in the province of AlicanteSpainESEUREYE (European Eye)Plasma, fasting and non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene2610.0770.08umol/L77.0 nmol/LCrudeVioque 2007
29790Obese (BMI: >30kg/m2)Elderly subjects in the province of AlicanteSpainESEUREYE (European Eye)Plasma, fasting and non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene1990.0590.05umol/L59.0 nmol/LCrudeVioque 2007
38390MalesAdultsUnited StatesUSEATS (Eating at America’s Table Study)Serum, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene440.070.050.09umol/L70.0 nmol/LCrudeDixon 2006
38460FemalesAdultsUnited StatesUSEATS (Eating at America’s Table Study)Serum, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene860.10.080.12umol/L100.0 nmol/LCrudeDixon 2006
399840001MalesParticipants in the EPIC calibration study from nine European countriesFranceFREPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Plasma, unspecifiedHPLCalpha-Carotene15170.12umol/L120.0 nmol/LCrudeAl-Delaimy 2005
400540071FemalesParticipants in the EPIC calibration study from nine European countriesFranceFREPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Plasma, unspecifiedHPLCalpha-Carotene15170.2umol/L200.0 nmol/LCrudeAl-Delaimy 2005
40750All [by gender]Subjects from Golestan ProvinceIran, Islamic Republic ofIRGCS (Golestan Cohort Study)Serum, unspecifiedHPLCalpha-Carotene650.040.02umol/L40.0 nmol/LCrudeMalekshah 2006
40820All [by gender]Subjects from Golestan ProvinceIran, Islamic Republic ofIRGCS (Golestan Cohort Study)Serum, unspecifiedHPLCalpha-Carotene650.050.03umol/L50.0 nmol/LCrudeMalekshah 2006
44220AllType I diabetic patientsSpainESSerum, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene400.080.07umol/L80.0 nmol/LCrudeGranado-Lorencio 2006
46260AllMen from Oerland military flight stationNorwayNOSerum, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene1000.0880.0730.068umol/L88.0 nmol/L68.0 nmol/LCrudeAndersen 2005
465046551AllParticipants in a dietary validation studyAustraliaAUNambour Skin Cancer StudySerum, non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene280.110.080.010.32umol/L110.0 nmol/LCrudeMcNaughton 2005
469247014MalesAdultsNetherlandsNLMORGEN-EPIC projectPlasma, non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene2840.0810.06umol/L81.0 nmol/LCrudeJansen 2004
470447134FemalesAdultsNetherlandsNLMORGEN-EPIC projectPlasma, non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene2870.120.09umol/L120.0 nmol/LCrudeJansen 2004
473347351AllCancer patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy in BostonUnited StatesUSPlasma, fasting and non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene1928.071.0467.0mmol/L71000000.0 nmol/LCrudeMeyerhardt 2005
482248211InterventionMothers in Maastricht with or without an increased fruit and vegetable diet interventionNetherlandsNLPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene840.180.2umol/L180.0 nmol/LCrudeBogers 2004
483348321InterventionMothers in Maastricht with or without an increased fruit and vegetable diet interventionNetherlandsNLPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene840.190.19umol/L190.0 nmol/LCrudeBogers 2004
52240BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene290.050.05umol/L50.0 nmol/LCrudeTangney 2004
52250WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene300.090.06umol/L90.0 nmol/LCrudeTangney 2004
52260FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene340.070.05umol/L70.0 nmol/LCrudeTangney 2004
52270MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene250.070.06umol/L70.0 nmol/LCrudeTangney 2004
52640BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene290.050.05umol/L50.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterol, TriglyceridesTangney 2004
52650WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene300.090.04umol/L90.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterol, TriglyceridesTangney 2004
52660FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene340.070.05umol/L70.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterol, TriglyceridesTangney 2004
52670MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene250.070.05umol/L70.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterol, TriglyceridesTangney 2004
54070MalesAdolescentsCosta RicaCRPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene810.120.06umol/L120.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterolIrwig 2002
54210FemalesAdolescentsCosta RicaCRPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene780.140.07umol/L140.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterolIrwig 2002
57380MalesControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene344135.092.0nmol/L135.0 nmol/LCrudeEl-Sohemy 2002
57430MalesControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRAdipose tissue, buttocksHPLCalpha-Carotene3440.20.15ug/g0.2 ug/gCrudeEl-Sohemy 2002
57530FemalesControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene115180.0151.0nmol/L180.0 nmol/LCrudeEl-Sohemy 2002
57580FemalesControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRAdipose tissue, buttocksHPLCalpha-Carotene1150.230.17ug/g0.2 ug/gCrudeEl-Sohemy 2002
680768102AllAfrican American adults from Black churches in Atlanta areaUnited StatesUSEat for Life TrialbaselineSerum, unspecifiedHPLCalpha-Carotene8134.16.5ug/dL0.0 mg/LCrudeResnicow 2000
72030InterventionWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUSPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene270.146umol/L146.0 nmol/LCrudeMcEligot 1999
72080ControlsWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUSPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene260.12umol/L120.0 nmol/LCrudeMcEligot 1999
72130InterventionWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUSPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene270.601umol/L601.0 nmol/LCrudeMcEligot 1999
72180ControlsWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUSPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene260.238umol/L238.0 nmol/LCrudeMcEligot 1999
72230InterventionWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUSPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene270.514umol/L514.0 nmol/LCrudeMcEligot 1999
72280ControlsWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUSPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene260.282umol/L282.0 nmol/LCrudeMcEligot 1999
72330MalesElderly subjectsUnited StatesUSFramingham Heart StudyPlasma, non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene2010.0820.0530.071umol/L82.0 nmol/L71.0 nmol/LCrudeTucker 1999
72450FemalesElderly subjectsUnited StatesUSFramingham Heart StudyPlasma, non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene3460.1170.0870.092umol/L117.0 nmol/L92.0 nmol/LCrudeTucker 1999
725972981AllWomen in the southern part of Mexico CityMexicoMXPlasma, non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene11039.527.6ug/L0.0 mg/LCrudeRomieu 1999
75010All [HPFS]Men living in the Boston areaUnited StatesUSHPFS (Health Professionals Follow-Up Study)Plasma, non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene1216.125.54mg/dL61.2 mg/LCrudeMichaud 1998
75080All [NHS]Women living in the Boston areaUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)Plasma, non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene1866.715.24mg/dL67.1 mg/LCrudeMichaud 1998
77510African AmericansAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics StudyPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene1240.04umol/L40.0 nmol/LRegressionAge, Sex, Education, BMI, CholesterolArab 2011
77560WhitesAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics StudyPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene1260.07umol/L70.0 nmol/LRegressionAge, Sex, Education, BMI, CholesterolArab 2011
81660AllMen from a large clinical trialUnited StatesUSPolyp Prevention TrialSerum, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene16291.157.718.6520.8nmol/L91.1 nmol/LCrudeMarshall 1997
823182331AllAdults in MataróSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Plasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene725.24.2ug/dL0.1 mg/LCrudeGonzalez 1997
824082421MalesAdults in MataróSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Plasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene323.72.3ug/dL0.0 mg/LCrudeGonzalez 1997
824982511FemalesAdults in MataróSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Plasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene406.34.9ug/dL0.1 mg/LCrudeGonzalez 1997
825882601SmokersAdults in MataróSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Plasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene164.93.8ug/dL0.0 mg/LCrudeGonzalez 1997
826782691Non-smokersAdults in MataróSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Plasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene565.34.3ug/dL0.1 mg/LCrudeGonzalez 1997
84650Non-smokers femalesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselinePlasma, unspecifiedHPLCalpha-Carotene560.150.13umol/L150.0 nmol/LCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84690Smokers femalesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselinePlasma, unspecifiedHPLCalpha-Carotene120.090.05umol/L90.0 nmol/LCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84730Non-smokers malesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselinePlasma, unspecifiedHPLCalpha-Carotene550.110.12umol/L110.0 nmol/LCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84770Smokers malesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselinePlasma, unspecifiedHPLCalpha-Carotene210.080.05umol/L80.0 nmol/LCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84810AllAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselinePlasma, unspecifiedHPLCalpha-Carotene1440.120.11umol/L120.0 nmol/LCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
873587381AllVolunteers from the University of Minnesota communityUnited StatesUSPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene995.64.3ug/dL0.1 mg/LCrudeCampbell 1994
883288371AllPremenopausal womenUnited StatesUSNCI-USDA diet study on alcohol-hormone metabolismPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene980.110.080.080.020.080.4mmol/L110000.0 nmol/L80000.0 nmol/L80000.0 nmol/LCrudeYong 1994
888488891AllMenUnited StatesUSPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene570.090.07mmol/L90000.0 nmol/LCrudeForman 1993
889088951AllMenUnited StatesUSPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene570.070.06mmol/L70000.0 nmol/LCrudeForman 1993
92300All [HPFS]Men living in the Boston areaUnited StatesUSHPFS (Health Professionals Follow-Up Study)Plasma, non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene1210.110.1umol/L110.0 nmol/LCrudeAscherio 1992
92400All [NHS]Women living in the Boston areaUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)Plasma, non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene1860.120.1umol/L120.0 nmol/LCrudeAscherio 1992
18262182652AllHawaii womenUnited StatesUSCohort study of cervical human papillomavirus at the Cancer Research Center of Hawaiibaseline; month 4; month 8; month 12Plasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene38156.046.00.045.0437.0ng/mL0.1 mg/L0.0 mg/LCrudeShvetsov 2009
184650AllSmokers and nonsmokers exposed to second-hand smokeUnited StatesUSStudy on the effect of antioxidant supplements on oxidative damage in active and passive smokersbaseline; 2 weeksPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene2062.983.592.0ug/dL0.0 mg/L0.0 mg/LCrudeBlock 2006
18622186271AllBreast cancer survivorsUnited StatesUSWHEL (Women's Healthy Eating and Living)baselinePlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene12050.2080.006umol/L208.0 nmol/LCrudeAl-Delaimy 2008
18631186331AllNursesUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)baseline; 2 yearsPlasma, unspecifiedHPLCalpha-Carotene4028.569.6233.0ug/L0.1 mg/LCrudeKotsopoulos 2010

Intake values

IDParent IDDepthSubject groupPopulationCountryCountry codeCohortTime definitionIntake toolIntake food coverageIntake time coverageIntake assessmentCompoundCompound detailSupplement intakes included?Measurement sizeDetected (nb)Detected (%)Detected only?Arithmethic meanArithmethic SDGeometric meanGeometric SDMinMin (detected)Percentile_05Percentile_10Percentile_25MedianPercentile_75Percentile_90Percentile_95MaxInterquartile rangeMean 95% CI lowerMean 95% CI upperGMean 95% CI lowerGMean 95% CI upperUnitConverted arithmetic meanConverted geometric meanConverted medianAdjustment typeAdjusted onRegressed onExpressed asPublication
10830African AmericansAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics Study24-h Dietary recall (1-day)alpha-CaroteneYes124310.0334.0100.01360.0ug/day0.3 mg/day0.3 mg/dayCrudeArab 2011
10880African AmericansAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics StudyDiet History Questionnaire (DHQ)alpha-CaroteneYes124406.0359.0206.0847.0ug/day0.4 mg/day0.4 mg/dayCrudeArab 2011
10930WhitesAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics Study24-h Dietary recall (1-day)alpha-CaroteneYes12671.01102.026.01850.0ug/day0.1 mg/day1.1 mg/dayCrudeArab 2011
10980WhitesAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics StudyDiet History Questionnaire (DHQ)alpha-CaroteneYes126557.0564.0252.01189.0ug/day0.6 mg/day0.6 mg/dayCrudeArab 2011
11740MalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyJapanJPJPHC StudybaselineCalculated with FDB_raw databaseDietary record (7-day)alpha-Carotene102997.01994.0ug/day1.0 mg/dayCrudeKobayashi 2011
11900MalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyJapanJPJPHC StudybaselineCalculated with FDB_cook databaseDietary record (7-day)alpha-Carotene1021095.01800.0ug/day1.1 mg/dayCrudeKobayashi 2011
12050FemalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyJapanJPJPHC StudybaselineCalculated with FDB_raw databaseDietary record (7-day)alpha-Carotene113826.01324.0ug/day0.8 mg/dayCrudeKobayashi 2011
12200FemalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyJapanJPJPHC StudybaselineCalculated with FDB_cook databaseDietary record (7-day)alpha-Carotene113893.01164.0ug/day0.9 mg/dayCrudeKobayashi 2011
18320African Americans - FemalesAfrican Americans and non-Hispanic whitesUnited StatesUSSCCS (Southern Community Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo63686.0787.5ug/day0.7 mg/dayCrudeSignorello 2010
18390African Americans - MalesAfrican Americans and non-Hispanic whitesUnited StatesUSSCCS (Southern Community Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo62556.2533.1ug/day0.6 mg/dayCrudeSignorello 2010
18460Whites - FemalesAfrican Americans and non-Hispanic whitesUnited StatesUSSCCS (Southern Community Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo64419.0364.3ug/day0.4 mg/dayCrudeSignorello 2010
18530Whites - MalesAfrican Americans and non-Hispanic whitesUnited StatesUSSCCS (Southern Community Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo66572.2483.9ug/day0.6 mg/dayCrudeSignorello 2010
20000MalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene1086558.01245.01618.0ug/day1.2 mg/dayCrudeHodge 2009
20070FemalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene2024654.01130.01799.0ug/day1.1 mg/dayCrudeHodge 2009
20300MalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene108663.0113.0171.0ug/MJ0.5 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyHodge 2009
20370FemalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene202485.7139.0205.0ug/MJ0.6 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyHodge 2009
20940WhitesWhites and African Americans in North CarolinaUnited StatesUSDISH (DIet, Supplements, and Health Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene81296.0617.0976.0ug/day0.6 mg/dayCrudeSatia 2009
21020WhitesWhites and African Americans in North CarolinaUnited StatesUSDISH (DIet, Supplements, and Health Study)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)alpha-Carotene81122.0305.0718.0ug/day0.3 mg/dayCrudeSatia 2009
21180African AmericansWhites and African Americans in North CarolinaUnited StatesUSDISH (DIet, Supplements, and Health Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene8396.0242.0714.0ug/day0.2 mg/dayCrudeSatia 2009
21260African AmericansWhites and African Americans in North CarolinaUnited StatesUSDISH (DIet, Supplements, and Health Study)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)alpha-Carotene8370.0175.0419.0ug/day0.2 mg/dayCrudeSatia 2009
214122451Children - MalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudyDiet History Questionnaire (DHQ)alpha-Carotene116235.2mg/1000 kcal235.2 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyOkuda 2009
216722471Children - FemalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudyDiet History Questionnaire (DHQ)alpha-Carotene100264.2mg/1000 kcal264.2 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyOkuda 2009
219322491Adolescents - MalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudyDiet History Questionnaire (DHQ)alpha-Carotene98134.7mg/1000 kcal134.7 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyOkuda 2009
221922511Adolescents - FemalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudyDiet History Questionnaire (DHQ)alpha-Carotene84160.4mg/1000 kcal160.4 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyOkuda 2009
22620Normal weightOverweight and normal weight children from the Hunter regionAustraliaAUFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo381652.0802.0ug/day1.7 mg/dayCrudeBurrows 2009
22740OverweightOverweight and normal weight children from the Hunter regionAustraliaAUHIKCUPS (Hunter Illawarra Kids Challenge Using Parent Support)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo201664.0488.0ug/day1.7 mg/dayCrudeBurrows 2009
22860ObeseOverweight and normal weight children from the Hunter regionAustraliaAUHIKCUPS (Hunter Illawarra Kids Challenge Using Parent Support)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo351687.0688.0ug/day1.7 mg/dayCrudeBurrows 2009
22980HIKCUPSOverweight and normal weight children from the Hunter regionAustraliaAUHIKCUPS (Hunter Illawarra Kids Challenge Using Parent Support)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo551672.0676.0ug/day1.7 mg/dayCrudeBurrows 2009
23210MalesAfrican American participants in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS)United StatesUSJHS (Jackson Heart Study)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)alpha-CaroteneNo15541.0177.0548.0ug/day0.2 mg/dayCrudeTalegawkar 2008
23270FemalesAfrican American participants in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS)United StatesUSJHS (Jackson Heart Study)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)alpha-CaroteneNo24737.0144.0487.0ug/day0.1 mg/dayCrudeTalegawkar 2008
23330MalesAfrican American participants in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS)United StatesUSJHS (Jackson Heart Study)baselineJHS-FFQ158-itemFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo155247.0385.0593.0ug/day0.4 mg/dayCrudeTalegawkar 2008
23390FemalesAfrican American participants in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS)United StatesUSJHS (Jackson Heart Study)baselineJHS-FFQ158-itemFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo247221.0349.0517.0ug/day0.3 mg/dayCrudeTalegawkar 2008
23510MalesAfrican American participants in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS)United StatesUSJHS (Jackson Heart Study)4 months and 1 weekDelta NIRI FFQ (Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative) + USDA283-itemFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo155180.0328.0509.0ug/day0.3 mg/dayCrudeTalegawkar 2008
23570FemalesAfrican American participants in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS)United StatesUSJHS (Jackson Heart Study)4 months and 1 weekDelta NIRI FFQ (Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative) + USDA283-itemFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo247143.0251.0431.0ug/day0.3 mg/dayCrudeTalegawkar 2008
253326221AllGeneral adult population in BostonUnited StatesUSFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene25367.2ug/day0.4 mg/dayCrudeChung 2009
29190MalesElderly subjects in the province of AlicanteSpainESEUREYE (European Eye)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene252720.3558.7ug/day0.7 mg/dayCrudeVioque 2007
29310FemalesElderly subjects in the province of AlicanteSpainESEUREYE (European Eye)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene293832.2504.2ug/day0.8 mg/dayCrudeVioque 2007
29430Normal weight (BMI: <25kg/m2)Elderly subjects in the province of AlicanteSpainESEUREYE (European Eye)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene85765.9560.6ug/day0.8 mg/dayCrudeVioque 2007
29570Overweight (BMI: 25 to 30 kg/m2)Elderly subjects in the province of AlicanteSpainESEUREYE (European Eye)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene261794.3581.0ug/day0.8 mg/dayCrudeVioque 2007
29710Obese (BMI: >30kg/m2)Elderly subjects in the province of AlicanteSpainESEUREYE (European Eye)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene199768.4449.4ug/day0.8 mg/dayCrudeVioque 2007
385338581MalesAdultsUnited StatesUSEATS (Eating at America’s Table Study)Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ)alpha-CaroteneNo44425.0308.0587.0ug/day0.4 mg/dayCrudeDixon 2006
386338681MalesAdultsUnited StatesUSEATS (Eating at America’s Table Study)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)alpha-CaroteneNo44209.0128.0339.0ug/day0.2 mg/dayCrudeDixon 2006
387338781FemalesAdultsUnited StatesUSEATS (Eating at America’s Table Study)Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ)alpha-CaroteneNo86526.0429.0646.0ug/day0.5 mg/dayCrudeDixon 2006
388338881FemalesAdultsUnited StatesUSEATS (Eating at America’s Table Study)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)alpha-CaroteneNo86332.0237.0465.0ug/day0.3 mg/dayCrudeDixon 2006
44280AllType I diabetic patientsSpainESFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene40367.0415.0ug/day0.4 mg/dayCrudeGranado-Lorencio 2006
44340AllType I diabetic patientsSpainESDietary record (3-day)alpha-Carotene40192.0417.0ug/day0.2 mg/dayCrudeGranado-Lorencio 2006
465946651AllParticipants in a dietary validation studyAustraliaAUNambour Skin Cancer StudyWeighed Dietary record (2-day)alpha-CaroteneNo281601.0856.0122.03575.0ug/day1.6 mg/dayCrudeMcNaughton 2005
467046761AllParticipants in a dietary validation studyAustraliaAUNambour Skin Cancer StudyFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo284234.02275.01134.09622.0ug/day4.2 mg/dayCrudeMcNaughton 2005
50320BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo29559.0558.0ug/day0.6 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
50330WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo30689.0367.0ug/day0.7 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
50340FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo34640.0564.0ug/day0.6 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
50350MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo25629.0386.0ug/day0.6 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
50920BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo29569.0587.0ug/day0.6 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
50930WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo30661.0369.0ug/day0.7 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
50940FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo34699.0713.0ug/day0.7 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
50950MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo25534.0319.0ug/day0.5 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
54000MalesAdolescentsCosta RicaCRFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene81460.0567.0ug/day0.5 mg/dayRegressionEnergyIrwig 2002
54140FemalesAdolescentsCosta RicaCRFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene78448.0461.0ug/day0.4 mg/dayRegressionEnergyIrwig 2002
57330MalesControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene344447.0449.0ug/day0.4 mg/dayCrudeEl-Sohemy 2002
57480FemalesControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene115727.0849.0ug/day0.7 mg/dayCrudeEl-Sohemy 2002
57840AllControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCR24-h Dietary recall (1-day)alpha-Carotene120118.070.0ug/day0.1 mg/dayCrudeKabagambe 2001
58100AllControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene120640.0792.0ug/day0.6 mg/dayCrudeKabagambe 2001
58360AllControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene120459.0442.0ug/day0.5 mg/dayCrudeKabagambe 2001
58620AllControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene120550.0547.0ug/day0.5 mg/dayCrudeKabagambe 2001
678367862AllAfrican American adults from Black churches in Atlanta areaUnited StatesUSEat for Life Trial-12 daysModification of HHHQ (Health Habits and History Questionnaire) + USDA36-item1 weekFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneYes1002532.0661.0ug/day0.5 mg/dayCrudeResnicow 2000
679167942AllAfrican American adults from Black churches in Atlanta areaUnited StatesUSEat for Life TrialUSDA24-h Dietary recall (1-day)alpha-CaroteneYes414401.01595.0ug/day0.4 mg/dayCrudeResnicow 2000
679968022AllAfrican American adults from Black churches in Atlanta areaUnited StatesUSEat for Life TrialUSDA24-h Dietary recall (1-day)alpha-CaroteneYes105303.0418.0ug/day0.3 mg/dayCrudeResnicow 2000
71730InterventionWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUS24-h Dietary recall (1-day)alpha-Carotene291115.0ug/day1.1 mg/dayCrudeMcEligot 1999
71780ControlsWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUS24-h Dietary recall (1-day)alpha-Carotene27686.0ug/day0.7 mg/dayCrudeMcEligot 1999
71830InterventionWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUS24-h Dietary recall (1-day)alpha-Carotene298201.0ug/day8.2 mg/dayCrudeMcEligot 1999
71880ControlsWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUS24-h Dietary recall (1-day)alpha-Carotene271166.0ug/day1.2 mg/dayCrudeMcEligot 1999
71930InterventionWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUS24-h Dietary recall (1-day)alpha-Carotene295269.0ug/day5.3 mg/dayCrudeMcEligot 1999
71980ControlsWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUS24-h Dietary recall (1-day)alpha-Carotene27853.0ug/day0.9 mg/dayCrudeMcEligot 1999
72380MalesElderly subjectsUnited StatesUSFramingham Heart StudyFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene201656.0605.0443.0ug/day0.7 mg/day0.4 mg/dayCrudeTucker 1999
72500FemalesElderly subjectsUnited StatesUSFramingham Heart StudyFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene346862.0781.0562.0ug/day0.9 mg/day0.6 mg/dayCrudeTucker 1999
726772711AllWomen in the southern part of Mexico CityMexicoMX24-h Dietary recall (4-day)alpha-Carotene110185.0291.0ug/day0.2 mg/dayCrudeRomieu 1999
727772811AllWomen in the southern part of Mexico CityMexicoMXFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene110144.0125.0ug/day0.1 mg/dayCrudeRomieu 1999
728772911AllWomen in the southern part of Mexico CityMexicoMXFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene110156.0152.0ug/day0.2 mg/dayCrudeRomieu 1999
75160All [HPFS]Men living in the Boston areaUnited StatesUSHPFS (Health Professionals Follow-Up Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene1211011.01019.0mg/day1011.0 mg/dayCrudeMichaud 1998
75220All [HPFS]Men living in the Boston areaUnited StatesUSHPFS (Health Professionals Follow-Up Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene121910.0771.0mg/day910.0 mg/dayCrudeMichaud 1998
75280All [NHS]Women living in the Boston areaUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene186919.0712.0mg/day919.0 mg/dayCrudeMichaud 1998
75340All [NHS]Women living in the Boston areaUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene186884.0675.0mg/day884.0 mg/dayCrudeMichaud 1998
77310African AmericansAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics Study24-h Dietary recall (1-day)alpha-CaroteneYes124286.0ug/day0.3 mg/dayRegressionAge, Sex, Education, BMI, CholesterolArab 2011
77360African AmericansAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics StudyDiet History Questionnaire (DHQ)alpha-CaroteneYes124456.0ug/day0.5 mg/dayRegressionAge, Sex, Education, BMI, CholesterolArab 2011
77410WhitesAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics Study24-h Dietary recall (1-day)alpha-CaroteneYes126987.0ug/day1.0 mg/dayRegressionAge, Sex, Education, BMI, CholesterolArab 2011
77460WhitesAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics StudyDiet History Questionnaire (DHQ)alpha-CaroteneYes126546.0ug/day0.5 mg/dayRegressionAge, Sex, Education, BMI, CholesterolArab 2011
81580AllMen from a large clinical trialUnited StatesUSPolyp Prevention TrialFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo162477.2383.13.62444.4ug/day0.5 mg/dayCrudeMarshall 1997
84250Non-smokers femalesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselineArizona FFQ + Mangel’s databaseFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo560.530.35mg/day0.5 mg/dayCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84290Non-smokers femalesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselineArizona FFQ + Block’s databaseFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo560.520.37mg/day0.5 mg/dayCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84330Smokers femalesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselineArizona FFQ + Mangel’s databaseFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo120.510.43mg/day0.5 mg/dayCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84370Smokers femalesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselineArizona FFQ + Block’s databaseFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo120.420.36mg/day0.4 mg/dayCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84410Non-smokers malesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselineArizona FFQ + Mangel’s databaseFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo670.610.58mg/day0.6 mg/dayCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84450Non-smokers malesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselineArizona FFQ + Block’s databaseFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo670.770.89mg/day0.8 mg/dayCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84490Smokers malesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselineArizona FFQ + Mangel’s databaseFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo250.460.29mg/day0.5 mg/dayCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84530Smokers malesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselineArizona FFQ + Block’s databaseFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo250.430.29mg/day0.4 mg/dayCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84570AllAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselineArizona FFQ + Mangel’s databaseFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo1600.550.45mg/day0.5 mg/dayCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84610AllAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselineArizona FFQ + Block’s databaseFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-CaroteneNo1600.60.64mg/day0.6 mg/dayCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
880888131AllPremenopausal womenUnited StatesUSNCI-USDA diet study on alcohol-hormone metabolismDietary record (7-day)alpha-Carotene98573.0590.0365.019.0397.03819.0ug/day0.6 mg/day0.4 mg/day0.4 mg/dayCrudeYong 1994
882088251AllPremenopausal womenUnited StatesUSNCI-USDA diet study on alcohol-hormone metabolismFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene98746.0685.0545.041.0553.03840.0ug/day0.7 mg/day0.5 mg/day0.6 mg/dayCrudeYong 1994
887288771AllMenUnited StatesUSFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)alpha-Carotene57840.0621.0ug/day0.8 mg/dayCrudeForman 1993
887888831AllMenUnited StatesUSDietary record (7-day)alpha-Carotene57650.0567.0ug/day0.6 mg/dayCrudeForman 1993

Correlation values

Reproducibility values

IDMst. IDSubject groupPopulationCountryCountry codeCohortTime definitionBiological specimenExperimental methodBiomarkerBiomarker detailArithmetic meanGeometric meanMedianUnitAdjusted onReproducibility sizeICCICC 95% CI lowerICC 95% CI upperCV% WSCV% BSVAR WSVAR BSPublication
891717Mild cognitive impairmentElderly subjects with and without mild cognitive impairmentUnited StatesUSbaseline; 1 monthPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotenemissing unit190.89Bowman 2011
671739No cognitive impairmentElderly subjects with and without mild cognitive impairmentUnited StatesUSbaseline; 1 monthPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotenemissing unit190.86Bowman 2011
361761All [by diagnosis]Elderly subjects with and without mild cognitive impairmentUnited StatesUSbaseline; 1 monthPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotenemissing unit380.94Bowman 2011
18518495AllWomenUnited StatesUSNYUWHS (New York University Women's Health Study)baseline; 1 year; 2 yearsSerum, non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotenemissing unit470.83van Kappel 2001
11918262AllHawaii womenUnited StatesUSCohort study of cervical human papillomavirus at the Cancer Research Center of Hawaiibaseline; month 4; month 8; month 12Plasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene56.045.0ng/mL3810.640.0020.004Shvetsov 2009
17018465AllSmokers and nonsmokers exposed to second-hand smokeUnited StatesUSStudy on the effect of antioxidant supplements on oxidative damage in active and passive smokersbaseline; 2 weeksPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Carotene2.982.0ug/dL2060.70.3880.889Block 2006
27918616AllBreast cancer survivorsUnited StatesUSWHEL (Women's Healthy Eating and Living)baseline; 1 year; 4 yearsPlasma, fastingHPLCalpha-Caroteneumol/L13230.63Al-Delaimy 2008
28818631AllNursesUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)baseline; 2 yearsPlasma, unspecifiedHPLCalpha-Carotene69.6ug/L400.730.570.8534.958.7Kotsopoulos 2010
62219093AllDutch participants of the EPIC-StudyNetherlandsNLMORGEN-EPIC projectbaseline; 3 yearsPlasma, non-fastingHPLCalpha-Carotenenmol/L620.40.210.56Leenders 2013