beta-Carotene

ID89
Namebeta-Carotene
Synonyms[Vitamin A] / Vitamin A; Carotene; all-trans-beta-Carotene
StructureThumb
Descriptionbeta-Carotene is the most well-known provitamin A carotenoid.
GroupCarotenoids
Sub-groupCarotenes
Exposure sourceDiet
UseVitamins
CAS number7235-40-7
PubChem ID5280489
ChEBI ID17579
FooDB IDFDB014613
HMDB IDHMDB00561

Biomarker measurements

Biomarker concentration values

IDParent IDDepthSubject groupPopulationCountryCountry codeCohortTime definitionBiospecimenAnalytical methodBiomarkerBiomarker detailMeasurement sizeDetected (nb)Detected (%)Detected only?Arithmethic meanArithmethic SDGeometric meanGeometric SDMinMin (detected)Percentile_05Percentile_10Percentile_25MedianPercentile_75Percentile_90Percentile_95MaxInterquartile rangeMean 95% CI lowerMean 95% CI upperGMean 95% CI lowerGMean 95% CI upperUnitConverted arithmetic meanConverted geometric meanConverted medianAdjustment typeAdjusted onRegressed onExpressed asPublication
11040African AmericansAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics StudyPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene1240.280.260.160.51umol/L280.0 nmol/L260.0 nmol/LCrudeArab 2011
11090WhitesAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics StudyPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene1260.330.330.220.52umol/L330.0 nmol/L330.0 nmol/LCrudeArab 2011
12360MalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyJapanJPJPHC StudySerum, fastingMissingbeta-Carotene890.320.24mg/mL320.0 mg/LCrudeKobayashi 2011
12430FemalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyJapanJPJPHC StudySerum, fastingMissingbeta-Carotene1010.570.37mg/mL570.0 mg/LCrudeKobayashi 2011
18610African Americans - FemalesAfrican Americans and non-Hispanic whitesUnited StatesUSSCCS (Southern Community Cohort Study)Plasma, non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene6321.320.6ug/dL0.2 mg/LCrudeSignorello 2010
18680African Americans - MalesAfrican Americans and non-Hispanic whitesUnited StatesUSSCCS (Southern Community Cohort Study)Plasma, non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene6213.111.1ug/dL0.1 mg/LCrudeSignorello 2010
18750Whites - FemalesAfrican Americans and non-Hispanic whitesUnited StatesUSSCCS (Southern Community Cohort Study)Plasma, non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene6413.812.6ug/dL0.1 mg/LCrudeSignorello 2010
18820Whites - MalesAfrican Americans and non-Hispanic whitesUnited StatesUSSCCS (Southern Community Cohort Study)Plasma, non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene6611.29.9ug/dL0.1 mg/LCrudeSignorello 2010
20150MalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Plasma, unspecifiedHPLCbeta-Carotene10860.280.480.77umol/L480.0 nmol/LCrudeHodge 2009
20230FemalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Plasma, unspecifiedHPLCbeta-Carotene20240.470.711.06umol/L710.0 nmol/LCrudeHodge 2009
20450MalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Plasma, unspecifiedHPLCbeta-Carotene108652.486.4143.0umol/mol86.4 umol/molDensityCholesterolHodge 2009
20530FemalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Plasma, unspecifiedHPLCbeta-Carotene202487.0128.0193.0umol/mol128.0 umol/molDensityCholesterolHodge 2009
21090WhitesWhites and African Americans in North CarolinaUnited StatesUSDISH (DIet, Supplements, and Health Study)Plasma, semi-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene810.1310.190.302umol/L190.0 nmol/LCrudeSatia 2009
21330African AmericansWhites and African Americans in North CarolinaUnited StatesUSDISH (DIet, Supplements, and Health Study)Plasma, semi-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene830.0940.1330.233umol/L133.0 nmol/LCrudeSatia 2009
215722462Children - MalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudySerum, fasting and non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene1160.434umol/L434.0 nmol/LCrudeOkuda 2009
218322482Children - FemalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudySerum, fasting and non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene1000.374umol/L374.0 nmol/LCrudeOkuda 2009
220922502Adolescents - MalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudySerum, fasting and non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene980.307umol/L307.0 nmol/LCrudeOkuda 2009
223522522Adolescents - FemalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudySerum, fasting and non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene840.333umol/L333.0 nmol/LCrudeOkuda 2009
22680Normal weightOverweight and normal weight children from the Hunter regionAustraliaAUPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene380.590.44umol/L590.0 nmol/LCrudeBurrows 2009
22800OverweightOverweight and normal weight children from the Hunter regionAustraliaAUHIKCUPS (Hunter Illawarra Kids Challenge Using Parent Support)Plasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene200.330.19umol/L330.0 nmol/LCrudeBurrows 2009
22920ObeseOverweight and normal weight children from the Hunter regionAustraliaAUHIKCUPS (Hunter Illawarra Kids Challenge Using Parent Support)Plasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene350.20.13umol/L200.0 nmol/LCrudeBurrows 2009
23040HIKCUPSOverweight and normal weight children from the Hunter regionAustraliaAUHIKCUPS (Hunter Illawarra Kids Challenge Using Parent Support)Plasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene550.340.31umol/L340.0 nmol/LCrudeBurrows 2009
23100MalesAfrican American participants in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS)United StatesUSJHS (Jackson Heart Study)Serum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene1550.62umol/L620.0 nmol/LCrudeTalegawkar 2008
23160FemalesAfrican American participants in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS)United StatesUSJHS (Jackson Heart Study)Serum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene2470.72umol/L720.0 nmol/LCrudeTalegawkar 2008
239524013Sub-study IParticipants in a dietary validation studyNorwayNOPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene147274.0414.0616.0nmol/L414.0 nmol/LCrudeCarlsen 2011
241624211Sub-study IIParticipants in a dietary validation studyNorwayNOPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene85307.0501.0684.0nmol/L501.0 nmol/LCrudeCarlsen 2011
255225512AllGeneral adult population in BostonUnited StatesUSSerum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene25528.3nmol/L528.3 nmol/LCrudeChung 2009
256925682AllGeneral adult population in BostonUnited StatesUSAdipose tissue, abdomenHPLCbeta-Carotene25939.2pmol/mg0.9 umol/gDensitySpecimen dry weightChung 2009
258825872AllGeneral adult population in BostonUnited StatesUSAdipose tissue, buttocksHPLCbeta-Carotene25709.2pmol/mg0.7 umol/gDensitySpecimen dry weightChung 2009
260626052AllGeneral adult population in BostonUnited StatesUSAdipose tissue, thighHPLCbeta-Carotene25557.0pmol/mg0.6 umol/gDensitySpecimen dry weightChung 2009
29260MalesElderly subjects in the province of AlicanteSpainESEUREYE (European Eye)Plasma, fasting and non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene2520.1960.23umol/L196.0 nmol/LCrudeVioque 2007
29380FemalesElderly subjects in the province of AlicanteSpainESEUREYE (European Eye)Plasma, fasting and non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene2930.3040.34umol/L304.0 nmol/LCrudeVioque 2007
29520Normal weight (BMI: <25kg/m2)Elderly subjects in the province of AlicanteSpainESEUREYE (European Eye)Plasma, fasting and non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene850.3930.53umol/L393.0 nmol/LCrudeVioque 2007
29660Overweight (BMI: 25 to 30 kg/m2)Elderly subjects in the province of AlicanteSpainESEUREYE (European Eye)Plasma, fasting and non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene2610.2490.25umol/L249.0 nmol/LCrudeVioque 2007
29800Obese (BMI: >30kg/m2)Elderly subjects in the province of AlicanteSpainESEUREYE (European Eye)Plasma, fasting and non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene1990.2010.18umol/L201.0 nmol/LCrudeVioque 2007
35100MalesAdultsFranceFRSU.VI.MAX (SUpplementation en VItamines et Mineraux AntioXydants)Serum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene14870.180.330.54umol/L330.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterol, TriglyceridesDauchet 2008
35310FemalesAdultsFranceFRSU.VI.MAX (SUpplementation en VItamines et Mineraux AntioXydants)Serum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene20340.260.440.69umol/L440.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterol, TriglyceridesDauchet 2008
37250Quartile 1 (Adherence: <38.77%, MDI)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene820.40.34umol/L400.0 nmol/LCrudeBach-Faig 2006
37260Quartile 1 (Adherence: <3.63%, MDS)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene820.370.29umol/L370.0 nmol/LCrudeBach-Faig 2006
37410Quartile 2 (Adherence: 38.77 to 48%, MDI)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene820.420.34umol/L420.0 nmol/LCrudeBach-Faig 2006
37420Quartile 2 (Adherence: 3.63 to 4.71%, MDS)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene820.490.38umol/L490.0 nmol/LCrudeBach-Faig 2006
37570Quartile 3 (Adherence: 48 to 56.24%, MDI)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene820.540.34umol/L540.0 nmol/LCrudeBach-Faig 2006
37580Quartile 3 (Adherence: 4.71 to 5.83%, MDS)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene820.410.27umol/L410.0 nmol/LCrudeBach-Faig 2006
37730Quartile 4 (Adherence: >56.24%, MDI)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene820.450.29umol/L450.0 nmol/LCrudeBach-Faig 2006
37740Quartile 4 (Adherence: >5.83%, MDS)Adults from CataloniaSpainESCatalan Nutritional SurveySerum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene820.530.35umol/L530.0 nmol/LCrudeBach-Faig 2006
38400MalesAdultsUnited StatesUSEATS (Eating at America’s Table Study)Serum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene440.210.160.28umol/L210.0 nmol/LCrudeDixon 2006
38470FemalesAdultsUnited StatesUSEATS (Eating at America’s Table Study)Serum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene860.260.210.32umol/L260.0 nmol/LCrudeDixon 2006
399940001MalesParticipants in the EPIC calibration study from nine European countriesFranceFREPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Plasma, unspecifiedHPLCbeta-Carotene15170.36umol/L360.0 nmol/LCrudeAl-Delaimy 2005
400640071FemalesParticipants in the EPIC calibration study from nine European countriesFranceFREPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Plasma, unspecifiedHPLCbeta-Carotene15170.54umol/L540.0 nmol/LCrudeAl-Delaimy 2005
40760All [by gender]Subjects from Golestan ProvinceIran, Islamic Republic ofIRGCS (Golestan Cohort Study)Serum, unspecifiedHPLCbeta-Carotene1210.1640.12umol/L164.0 nmol/LCrudeMalekshah 2006
40830All [by gender]Subjects from Golestan ProvinceIran, Islamic Republic ofIRGCS (Golestan Cohort Study)Serum, unspecifiedHPLCbeta-Carotene1210.1980.15umol/L198.0 nmol/LCrudeMalekshah 2006
44230AllType I diabetic patientsSpainESSerum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene400.390.26umol/L390.0 nmol/LCrudeGranado-Lorencio 2006
46270AllMen from Oerland military flight stationNorwayNOSerum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene1000.4490.230.379umol/L449.0 nmol/L379.0 nmol/LCrudeAndersen 2005
465146551AllParticipants in a dietary validation studyAustraliaAUNambour Skin Cancer StudySerum, non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene280.620.590.032.7umol/L620.0 nmol/LCrudeMcNaughton 2005
469347014MalesAdultsNetherlandsNLMORGEN-EPIC projectPlasma, non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene2840.240.152umol/L240.0 nmol/LCrudeJansen 2004
470547134FemalesAdultsNetherlandsNLMORGEN-EPIC projectPlasma, non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene2870.3020.184umol/L302.0 nmol/LCrudeJansen 2004
473447351AllCancer patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy in BostonUnited StatesUSPlasma, fasting and non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene19228.0277.01354.0mmol/L277000000.0 nmol/LCrudeMeyerhardt 2005
482348211InterventionMothers in Maastricht with or without an increased fruit and vegetable diet interventionNetherlandsNLPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene840.580.48umol/L580.0 nmol/LCrudeBogers 2004
483448321InterventionMothers in Maastricht with or without an increased fruit and vegetable diet interventionNetherlandsNLPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene840.640.44umol/L640.0 nmol/LCrudeBogers 2004
52200BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene290.460.22umol/L460.0 nmol/LCrudeTangney 2004
52210WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene300.450.25umol/L450.0 nmol/LCrudeTangney 2004
52220FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene340.40.21umol/L400.0 nmol/LCrudeTangney 2004
52230MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene250.520.48umol/L520.0 nmol/LCrudeTangney 2004
52600BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene290.480.25umol/L480.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterol, TriglyceridesTangney 2004
52610WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene300.420.33umol/L420.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterol, TriglyceridesTangney 2004
52620FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene340.40.21umol/L400.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterol, TriglyceridesTangney 2004
52630MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Serum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene250.510.38umol/L510.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterol, TriglyceridesTangney 2004
54080MalesAdolescentsCosta RicaCRPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene810.470.33umol/L470.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterolIrwig 2002
54220FemalesAdolescentsCosta RicaCRPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene780.60.5umol/L600.0 nmol/LRegressionCholesterolIrwig 2002
57390MalesControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene344484.0407.0nmol/L484.0 nmol/LCrudeEl-Sohemy 2002
57440MalesControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRAdipose tissue, buttocksHPLCbeta-Carotene3440.20.18ug/g0.2 ug/gCrudeEl-Sohemy 2002
57540FemalesControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene115821.0725.0nmol/L821.0 nmol/LCrudeEl-Sohemy 2002
57590FemalesControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRAdipose tissue, buttocksHPLCbeta-Carotene1150.410.3ug/g0.4 ug/gCrudeEl-Sohemy 2002
60140AllResidents of Washington County and surrounding areasUnited StatesUSCLUE IIPlasma, non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene11613.511.41.26.510.417.375.2ug/dL0.1 mg/L0.1 mg/LCrudeBlock 2001
680868102AllAfrican American adults from Black churches in Atlanta areaUnited StatesUSEat for Life TrialbaselineSerum, unspecifiedHPLCbeta-Carotene81323.625.3ug/dL0.2 mg/LCrudeResnicow 2000
72020InterventionWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUSPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene270.748umol/L748.0 nmol/LCrudeMcEligot 1999
72070ControlsWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUSPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene260.844umol/L844.0 nmol/LCrudeMcEligot 1999
72120InterventionWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUSPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene271.4umol/L1400.0 nmol/LCrudeMcEligot 1999
72170ControlsWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUSPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene261.071umol/L1071.0 nmol/LCrudeMcEligot 1999
72220InterventionWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUSPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene271.391umol/L1391.0 nmol/LCrudeMcEligot 1999
72270ControlsWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUSPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene260.943umol/L943.0 nmol/LCrudeMcEligot 1999
72340MalesElderly subjectsUnited StatesUSFramingham Heart StudyPlasma, non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene2010.330.230.27umol/L330.0 nmol/L270.0 nmol/LCrudeTucker 1999
72460FemalesElderly subjectsUnited StatesUSFramingham Heart StudyPlasma, non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene3460.510.340.42umol/L510.0 nmol/L420.0 nmol/LCrudeTucker 1999
726072981AllWomen in the southern part of Mexico CityMexicoMXPlasma, non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene110253.0166.0ug/L0.3 mg/LCrudeRomieu 1999
74020MalesParticipants in an investigation of antioxidant intake and adult onset asthma in ScotlandUnited KingdomGBPlasma, unspecifiedHPLCbeta-Carotene1180.40.40.00.32.0umol/L400.0 nmol/L300.0 nmol/LCrudeBodner 1998
74060FemalesParticipants in an investigation of antioxidant intake and adult onset asthma in ScotlandUnited KingdomGBPlasma, unspecifiedHPLCbeta-Carotene1550.50.40.00.42.4umol/L500.0 nmol/L400.0 nmol/LCrudeBodner 1998
75020All [HPFS]Men living in the Boston areaUnited StatesUSHPFS (Health Professionals Follow-Up Study)Plasma, non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene12124.6715.58mg/dL246.7 mg/LCrudeMichaud 1998
75090All [NHS]Women living in the Boston areaUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)Plasma, non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene18630.8720.14mg/dL308.7 mg/LCrudeMichaud 1998
77520African AmericansAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics StudyPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene1240.23umol/L230.0 nmol/LRegressionAge, Sex, Education, BMI, CholesterolArab 2011
77570WhitesAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics StudyPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene1260.31umol/L310.0 nmol/LRegressionAge, Sex, Education, BMI, CholesterolArab 2011
81290Quartile 1 (Fat intake: 62.2 g/day)Adults in Val-de-Marne area participant in a cross-sectional nutrional surveyFranceFRSerum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene2090.89umol/L890.0 nmol/LCrudeDrewnowski 1997
81320Quartile 2 (Fat intake: 76.3 g/day)Adults in Val-de-Marne area participant in a cross-sectional nutrional surveyFranceFRSerum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene2090.85umol/L850.0 nmol/LCrudeDrewnowski 1997
81350Quartile 3 (Fat intake: 89.9 g/day)Adults in Val-de-Marne area participant in a cross-sectional nutrional surveyFranceFRSerum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene2100.84umol/L840.0 nmol/LCrudeDrewnowski 1997
81380Quartile 4 (Fat intake: 105.1 g/day)Adults in Val-de-Marne area participant in a cross-sectional nutrional surveyFranceFRSerum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene2090.83umol/L830.0 nmol/LCrudeDrewnowski 1997
81670AllMen from a large clinical trialUnited StatesUSPolyp Prevention TrialSerum, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene162357.1284.9592.01798.0nmol/L357.1 nmol/LCrudeMarshall 1997
823282331AllAdults in MataróSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Plasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene7224.215.7ug/dL0.2 mg/LCrudeGonzalez 1997
824182421MalesAdults in MataróSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Plasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene3215.27.7ug/dL0.2 mg/LCrudeGonzalez 1997
825082511FemalesAdults in MataróSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Plasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene4031.216.7ug/dL0.3 mg/LCrudeGonzalez 1997
825982601SmokersAdults in MataróSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Plasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene1622.613.6ug/dL0.2 mg/LCrudeGonzalez 1997
826882691Non-smokersAdults in MataróSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Plasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene5624.716.3ug/dL0.2 mg/LCrudeGonzalez 1997
84640Non-smokers femalesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselinePlasma, unspecifiedHPLCbeta-Carotene560.560.44umol/L560.0 nmol/LCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84680Smokers femalesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselinePlasma, unspecifiedHPLCbeta-Carotene120.260.12umol/L260.0 nmol/LCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84720Non-smokers malesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselinePlasma, unspecifiedHPLCbeta-Carotene630.410.34umol/L410.0 nmol/LCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84760Smokers malesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselinePlasma, unspecifiedHPLCbeta-Carotene250.230.12umol/L230.0 nmol/LCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84800AllAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselinePlasma, unspecifiedHPLCbeta-Carotene1570.430.36umol/L430.0 nmol/LCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
85120AllStudents and technicians attending the Agriculture Faculty and the Nursing School of San Carlo Hospital of MilanItalyITPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene38391.0192.0ug/L0.4 mg/LCrudePorrini 1995
873687381AllVolunteers from the University of Minnesota communityUnited StatesUSPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene9915.711.7ug/dL0.2 mg/LCrudeCampbell 1994
87720AllWomen living in the Cambridge areaUnited KingdomGBPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene420.440.251umol/L440.0 nmol/LCrudeScott 1996
87730AllWomen living in the Cambridge areaUnited KingdomGBPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene420.3910.215umol/L391.0 nmol/LCrudeScott 1996
87740AllWomen living in the Cambridge areaUnited KingdomGBPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene420.6850.404umol/L685.0 nmol/LCrudeScott 1996
87750AllWomen living in the Cambridge areaUnited KingdomGBPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene420.6530.355umol/L653.0 nmol/LCrudeScott 1996
87760AllWomen living in the Cambridge areaUnited KingdomGBbaseline; 1 week; 2 weeks; 3 weeksPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene420.5420.27umol/L542.0 nmol/LCrudeScott 1996
883388371AllPremenopausal womenUnited StatesUSNCI-USDA diet study on alcohol-hormone metabolismPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene980.340.190.30.090.290.98mmol/L340000.0 nmol/L300000.0 nmol/L290000.0 nmol/LCrudeYong 1994
888588891AllMenUnited StatesUSPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene570.580.3mmol/L580000.0 nmol/LCrudeForman 1993
889188951AllMenUnited StatesUSPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene570.350.15mmol/L350000.0 nmol/LCrudeForman 1993
92310All [HPFS]Men living in the Boston areaUnited StatesUSHPFS (Health Professionals Follow-Up Study)Plasma, non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene1210.460.29umol/L460.0 nmol/LCrudeAscherio 1992
92410All [NHS]Women living in the Boston areaUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)Plasma, non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene1860.580.37umol/L580.0 nmol/LCrudeAscherio 1992
18273182633AllHawaii womenUnited StatesUSCohort study of cervical human papillomavirus at the Cancer Research Center of Hawaiibaseline; month 4; month 8; month 12Plasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene381200.0171.02.0149.01599.0ng/mL0.2 mg/L0.1 mg/LCrudeShvetsov 2009
184660AllSmokers and nonsmokers exposed to second-hand smokeUnited StatesUSStudy on the effect of antioxidant supplements on oxidative damage in active and passive smokersbaseline; 2 weeksPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene20611.4610.198.3ug/dL0.1 mg/L0.1 mg/LCrudeBlock 2006
18623186271AllBreast cancer survivorsUnited StatesUSWHEL (Women's Healthy Eating and Living)baselinePlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene12050.9360.03umol/L936.0 nmol/LCrudeAl-Delaimy 2008
18632186331AllNursesUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)baseline; 2 yearsPlasma, unspecifiedHPLCbeta-Carotene4086.9288.0711.0ug/L0.3 mg/LCrudeKotsopoulos 2010

Intake values

IDParent IDDepthSubject groupPopulationCountryCountry codeCohortTime definitionIntake toolIntake food coverageIntake time coverageIntake assessmentCompoundCompound detailSupplement intakes included?Measurement sizeDetected (nb)Detected (%)Detected only?Arithmethic meanArithmethic SDGeometric meanGeometric SDMinMin (detected)Percentile_05Percentile_10Percentile_25MedianPercentile_75Percentile_90Percentile_95MaxInterquartile rangeMean 95% CI lowerMean 95% CI upperGMean 95% CI lowerGMean 95% CI upperUnitConverted arithmetic meanConverted geometric meanConverted medianAdjustment typeAdjusted onRegressed onExpressed asPublication
10840African AmericansAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics Study24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneYes1241420.01529.0794.03797.0ug/day1.4 mg/day1.5 mg/dayCrudeArab 2011
10890African AmericansAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics StudyDiet History Questionnaire (DHQ)beta-CaroteneYes1242610.02299.01332.05577.0ug/day2.6 mg/day2.3 mg/dayCrudeArab 2011
10940WhitesAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics Study24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneYes1262027.02108.0978.04102.0ug/day2.0 mg/day2.1 mg/dayCrudeArab 2011
10990WhitesAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics StudyDiet History Questionnaire (DHQ)beta-CaroteneYes1263152.03219.01897.05363.0ug/day3.2 mg/day3.2 mg/dayCrudeArab 2011
11750MalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyJapanJPJPHC StudybaselineCalculated with FDB_raw databaseDietary record (7-day)beta-Carotene1023413.05041.0ug/day3.4 mg/dayCrudeKobayashi 2011
11910MalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyJapanJPJPHC StudybaselineCalculated with FDB_cook databaseDietary record (7-day)beta-Carotene1023484.07137.0ug/day3.5 mg/dayCrudeKobayashi 2011
12060FemalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyJapanJPJPHC StudybaselineCalculated with FDB_raw databaseDietary record (7-day)beta-Carotene1133309.04114.0ug/day3.3 mg/dayCrudeKobayashi 2011
12210FemalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyJapanJPJPHC StudybaselineCalculated with FDB_cook databaseDietary record (7-day)beta-Carotene1133443.06007.0ug/day3.4 mg/dayCrudeKobayashi 2011
18330African Americans - FemalesAfrican Americans and non-Hispanic whitesUnited StatesUSSCCS (Southern Community Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo635820.85119.8ug/day5.8 mg/dayCrudeSignorello 2010
18400African Americans - MalesAfrican Americans and non-Hispanic whitesUnited StatesUSSCCS (Southern Community Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo626212.25750.7ug/day6.2 mg/dayCrudeSignorello 2010
18470Whites - FemalesAfrican Americans and non-Hispanic whitesUnited StatesUSSCCS (Southern Community Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo643203.41952.5ug/day3.2 mg/dayCrudeSignorello 2010
18540Whites - MalesAfrican Americans and non-Hispanic whitesUnited StatesUSSCCS (Southern Community Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo663617.02656.1ug/day3.6 mg/dayCrudeSignorello 2010
20010MalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene10863315.05143.07028.0ug/day5.1 mg/dayCrudeHodge 2009
20080FemalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene20243866.05266.07125.0ug/day5.3 mg/dayCrudeHodge 2009
20310MalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene1086359.0510.0670.0ug/MJ2.1 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyHodge 2009
20380FemalesEthnically diverse population with participants born in Australia, Greece, Italy or the UKAustraliaAUMCCS (Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene2024471.0645.0844.0ug/MJ2.7 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyHodge 2009
20930WhitesWhites and African Americans in North CarolinaUnited StatesUSDISH (DIet, Supplements, and Health Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene812168.03625.06168.0ug/day3.6 mg/dayCrudeSatia 2009
21010WhitesWhites and African Americans in North CarolinaUnited StatesUSDISH (DIet, Supplements, and Health Study)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-Carotene811708.02937.04488.0ug/day2.9 mg/dayCrudeSatia 2009
21170African AmericansWhites and African Americans in North CarolinaUnited StatesUSDISH (DIet, Supplements, and Health Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene831267.02865.05490.0ug/day2.9 mg/dayCrudeSatia 2009
21250African AmericansWhites and African Americans in North CarolinaUnited StatesUSDISH (DIet, Supplements, and Health Study)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-Carotene83988.02151.04072.0ug/day2.2 mg/dayCrudeSatia 2009
214222451Children - MalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudyDiet History Questionnaire (DHQ)beta-Carotene1161445.1mg/1000 kcal1445.1 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyOkuda 2009
216822471Children - FemalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudyDiet History Questionnaire (DHQ)beta-Carotene1001706.9mg/1000 kcal1706.9 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyOkuda 2009
219422491Adolescents - MalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudyDiet History Questionnaire (DHQ)beta-Carotene981140.3mg/1000 kcal1140.3 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyOkuda 2009
222022511Adolescents - FemalesStudents in Shunan CityJapanJPShunan Child Cohort StudyDiet History Questionnaire (DHQ)beta-Carotene841239.9mg/1000 kcal1239.9 mg/1000 kcalDensityEnergyOkuda 2009
22610Normal weightOverweight and normal weight children from the Hunter regionAustraliaAUFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo386092.02764.0ug/day6.1 mg/dayCrudeBurrows 2009
22730OverweightOverweight and normal weight children from the Hunter regionAustraliaAUHIKCUPS (Hunter Illawarra Kids Challenge Using Parent Support)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo206479.02642.0ug/day6.5 mg/dayCrudeBurrows 2009
22850ObeseOverweight and normal weight children from the Hunter regionAustraliaAUHIKCUPS (Hunter Illawarra Kids Challenge Using Parent Support)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo357013.03325.0ug/day7.0 mg/dayCrudeBurrows 2009
22970HIKCUPSOverweight and normal weight children from the Hunter regionAustraliaAUHIKCUPS (Hunter Illawarra Kids Challenge Using Parent Support)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo556633.03028.0ug/day6.6 mg/dayCrudeBurrows 2009
23220MalesAfrican American participants in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS)United StatesUSJHS (Jackson Heart Study)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneYes1551696.03178.05360.0ug/day3.2 mg/dayCrudeTalegawkar 2008
23230MalesAfrican American participants in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS)United StatesUSJHS (Jackson Heart Study)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneNo1551584.02928.06099.0ug/day2.9 mg/dayCrudeTalegawkar 2008
23280FemalesAfrican American participants in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS)United StatesUSJHS (Jackson Heart Study)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneYes2472029.03044.06525.0ug/day3.0 mg/dayCrudeTalegawkar 2008
23290FemalesAfrican American participants in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS)United StatesUSJHS (Jackson Heart Study)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneNo2471409.02770.04933.0ug/day2.8 mg/dayCrudeTalegawkar 2008
23340MalesAfrican American participants in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS)United StatesUSJHS (Jackson Heart Study)baselineJHS-FFQ158-itemFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes1552304.02886.03682.0ug/day2.9 mg/dayCrudeTalegawkar 2008
23350MalesAfrican American participants in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS)United StatesUSJHS (Jackson Heart Study)baselineJHS-FFQ158-itemFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo1552147.02802.03529.0ug/day2.8 mg/dayCrudeTalegawkar 2008
23400FemalesAfrican American participants in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS)United StatesUSJHS (Jackson Heart Study)baselineJHS-FFQ158-itemFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes2472419.03048.04100.0ug/day3.0 mg/dayCrudeTalegawkar 2008
23410FemalesAfrican American participants in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS)United StatesUSJHS (Jackson Heart Study)baselineJHS-FFQ158-itemFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo2471940.02561.03312.0ug/day2.6 mg/dayCrudeTalegawkar 2008
23520MalesAfrican American participants in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS)United StatesUSJHS (Jackson Heart Study)4 months and 1 weekDelta NIRI FFQ (Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative) + USDA283-itemFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes1551776.02685.04575.0ug/day2.7 mg/dayCrudeTalegawkar 2008
23530MalesAfrican American participants in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS)United StatesUSJHS (Jackson Heart Study)4 months and 1 weekDelta NIRI FFQ (Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative) + USDA283-itemFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo1551534.02205.03424.0ug/day2.2 mg/dayCrudeTalegawkar 2008
23580FemalesAfrican American participants in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS)United StatesUSJHS (Jackson Heart Study)4 months and 1 weekDelta NIRI FFQ (Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative) + USDA283-itemFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes2471746.02707.04057.0ug/day2.7 mg/dayCrudeTalegawkar 2008
23590FemalesAfrican American participants in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS)United StatesUSJHS (Jackson Heart Study)4 months and 1 weekDelta NIRI FFQ (Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative) + USDA283-itemFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo2471528.02211.02992.0ug/day2.2 mg/dayCrudeTalegawkar 2008
29200MalesElderly subjects in the province of AlicanteSpainESEUREYE (European Eye)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene2524000.12076.4ug/day4.0 mg/dayCrudeVioque 2007
29320FemalesElderly subjects in the province of AlicanteSpainESEUREYE (European Eye)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene2934358.22134.3ug/day4.4 mg/dayCrudeVioque 2007
29440Normal weight (BMI: <25kg/m2)Elderly subjects in the province of AlicanteSpainESEUREYE (European Eye)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene853931.42076.1ug/day3.9 mg/dayCrudeVioque 2007
29580Overweight (BMI: 25 to 30 kg/m2)Elderly subjects in the province of AlicanteSpainESEUREYE (European Eye)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene2614297.02404.8ug/day4.3 mg/dayCrudeVioque 2007
29720Obese (BMI: >30kg/m2)Elderly subjects in the province of AlicanteSpainESEUREYE (European Eye)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene1994167.31674.7ug/day4.2 mg/dayCrudeVioque 2007
35610MalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyDenmarkDKInter99Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene125604.01553.03881.0mg/day1553.0 mg/dayCrudeToft 2008
35730FemalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyDenmarkDKInter99Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene139818.02174.06015.0mg/day2174.0 mg/dayCrudeToft 2008
385438581MalesAdultsUnited StatesUSEATS (Eating at America’s Table Study)Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ)beta-CaroteneNo442452.01916.03138.0ug/day2.5 mg/dayCrudeDixon 2006
386438681MalesAdultsUnited StatesUSEATS (Eating at America’s Table Study)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneNo442049.01565.02684.0ug/day2.0 mg/dayCrudeDixon 2006
387438781FemalesAdultsUnited StatesUSEATS (Eating at America’s Table Study)Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ)beta-CaroteneNo862683.02277.03160.0ug/day2.7 mg/dayCrudeDixon 2006
388438881FemalesAdultsUnited StatesUSEATS (Eating at America’s Table Study)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneNo861956.01609.02377.0ug/day2.0 mg/dayCrudeDixon 2006
40420MalesSubjects from Golestan ProvinceIran, Islamic Republic ofIRGCS (Golestan Cohort Study)24-h Dietary recall (2-day)beta-Carotene4990.0107.0ug/day0.1 mg/dayCrudeMalekshah 2006
40500MalesSubjects from Golestan ProvinceIran, Islamic Republic ofIRGCS (Golestan Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene49156.0184.0ug/day0.2 mg/dayCrudeMalekshah 2006
40610FemalesSubjects from Golestan ProvinceIran, Islamic Republic ofIRGCS (Golestan Cohort Study)24-h Dietary recall (2-day)beta-Carotene8266.078.0ug/day0.1 mg/dayCrudeMalekshah 2006
40700FemalesSubjects from Golestan ProvinceIran, Islamic Republic ofIRGCS (Golestan Cohort Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene82156.021.0ug/day0.2 mg/dayCrudeMalekshah 2006
44290AllType I diabetic patientsSpainESFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene401942.01463.0ug/day1.9 mg/dayCrudeGranado-Lorencio 2006
44350AllType I diabetic patientsSpainESDietary record (3-day)beta-Carotene401031.01220.0ug/day1.0 mg/dayCrudeGranado-Lorencio 2006
466046651AllParticipants in a dietary validation studyAustraliaAUNambour Skin Cancer StudyWeighed Dietary record (2-day)beta-CaroteneNo284067.02271.0623.09249.0ug/day4.1 mg/dayCrudeMcNaughton 2005
467146761AllParticipants in a dietary validation studyAustraliaAUNambour Skin Cancer StudyFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo2810002.04954.04457.021188.0ug/day10.0 mg/dayCrudeMcNaughton 2005
467246771AllParticipants in a dietary validation studyAustraliaAUNambour Skin Cancer StudyFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes2812198.011426.04457.064911.0ug/day12.2 mg/dayCrudeMcNaughton 2005
47630AllParticipants in a dietary validation studyIsraelILDEARR (Dietary Evaluation and Attenuation of Relative Risks)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneNo161827.0mg/day827.0 mg/dayRegressionSexShai 2005
47660AllParticipants in a dietary validation studyIsraelILDEARR (Dietary Evaluation and Attenuation of Relative Risks)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneYes161994.0mg/day994.0 mg/dayRegressionSexShai 2005
47700AllParticipants in a dietary validation studyIsraelILDEARR (Dietary Evaluation and Attenuation of Relative Risks)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo1611508.0mg/day1508.0 mg/dayRegressionSexShai 2005
47730AllParticipants in a dietary validation studyIsraelILDEARR (Dietary Evaluation and Attenuation of Relative Risks)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes1611674.0mg/day1674.0 mg/dayRegressionSexShai 2005
47770AllParticipants in a dietary validation studyIsraelILDEARR (Dietary Evaluation and Attenuation of Relative Risks)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneNo161825.0mg/day825.0 mg/dayRegressionSex, EnergyShai 2005
47800AllParticipants in a dietary validation studyIsraelILDEARR (Dietary Evaluation and Attenuation of Relative Risks)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneYes161992.0mg/day992.0 mg/dayRegressionSex, EnergyShai 2005
47840AllParticipants in a dietary validation studyIsraelILDEARR (Dietary Evaluation and Attenuation of Relative Risks)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo1611505.0mg/day1505.0 mg/dayRegressionSex, EnergyShai 2005
47870AllParticipants in a dietary validation studyIsraelILDEARR (Dietary Evaluation and Attenuation of Relative Risks)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes1611672.0mg/day1672.0 mg/dayRegressionSex, EnergyShai 2005
50240BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes293971.02620.0ug/day4.0 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
50250WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes304842.03053.0ug/day4.8 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
50260FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes344012.02276.0ug/day4.0 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
50270MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes254724.03395.0ug/day4.7 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
50280BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo293419.02216.0ug/day3.4 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
50290WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo303363.01907.0ug/day3.4 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
50300FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo343760.01913.0ug/day3.8 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
50310MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo255429.03648.0ug/day5.4 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
50840BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes294111.02857.0ug/day4.1 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
50850WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes304596.02710.0ug/day4.6 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
50860FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes344012.02276.0ug/day4.0 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
50870MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes254724.03395.0ug/day4.7 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
50880BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo293508.02038.0ug/day3.5 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
50890WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo303148.01416.0ug/day3.1 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
50900FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo343629.02250.0ug/day3.6 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
50910MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo252875.01291.0ug/day2.9 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
51440BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneYes294639.03183.0ug/day4.6 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
51450WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneYes304877.02819.0ug/day4.9 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
51460FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneYes344650.02585.0ug/day4.6 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
51470MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneYes254738.03318.0ug/day4.7 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
51480BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneNo294477.03206.0ug/day4.5 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
51490WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneNo304747.02862.0ug/day4.7 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
51500FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneNo344452.02638.0ug/day4.5 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
51510MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneNo254662.03340.0ug/day4.7 mg/dayCrudeTangney 2004
51880BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneYes294944.03789.0ug/day4.9 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
51890WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneYes304399.02279.0ug/day4.4 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
51900FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneYes344932.02953.0ug/day4.9 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
51910MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneYes254311.02925.0ug/day4.3 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
51920BlacksElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneNo294752.03792.0ug/day4.8 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
51930WhitesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneNo304275.02299.0ug/day4.3 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
51940FemalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneNo344715.02991.0ug/day4.7 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
51950MalesElderly black and white participants in a dietary validation studyUnited StatesUSCHAP (Chicago Health and Aging Project)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneNo254240.02947.0ug/day4.2 mg/dayRegressionEnergyTangney 2004
54010MalesAdolescentsCosta RicaCRFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene813558.02274.0ug/day3.6 mg/dayRegressionEnergyIrwig 2002
54150FemalesAdolescentsCosta RicaCRFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene783768.02369.0ug/day3.8 mg/dayRegressionEnergyIrwig 2002
57340MalesControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene3443407.02407.0ug/day3.4 mg/dayCrudeEl-Sohemy 2002
57490FemalesControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene1154668.03564.0ug/day4.7 mg/dayCrudeEl-Sohemy 2002
57850AllControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCR24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-Carotene120596.0351.0ug/day0.6 mg/dayCrudeKabagambe 2001
58110AllControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene1204239.03344.0ug/day4.2 mg/dayCrudeKabagambe 2001
58370AllControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene1203604.02283.0ug/day3.6 mg/dayCrudeKabagambe 2001
58630AllControls in a case-control study on diet and heart diseaseCosta RicaCRFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene1203921.02442.0ug/day3.9 mg/dayCrudeKabagambe 2001
64190MalesMiddle-aged participants in a dietary validation studyUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Norfolk (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Dietary record (7-day)beta-CaroteneYes581880.0967.0ug/day1.9 mg/dayCrudeMcKeown 2001
64260FemalesMiddle-aged participants in a dietary validation studyUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Norfolk (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Dietary record (7-day)beta-CaroteneYes882061.01656.0ug/day2.1 mg/dayCrudeMcKeown 2001
64330MalesMiddle-aged participants in a dietary validation studyUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Norfolk (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Dietary record (7-day)beta-CaroteneYes581853.0946.0ug/day1.9 mg/dayCrudeMcKeown 2001
64400FemalesMiddle-aged participants in a dietary validation studyUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Norfolk (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Dietary record (7-day)beta-CaroteneYes882178.01847.0ug/day2.2 mg/dayCrudeMcKeown 2001
64470MalesMiddle-aged participants in a dietary validation studyUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Norfolk (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Dietary record (7-day)beta-CaroteneYes581867.0822.0ug/day1.9 mg/dayCrudeMcKeown 2001
64540FemalesMiddle-aged participants in a dietary validation studyUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Norfolk (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Dietary record (7-day)beta-CaroteneYes882099.01570.0ug/day2.1 mg/dayCrudeMcKeown 2001
64610MalesMiddle-aged participants in a dietary validation studyUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Norfolk (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes583056.01259.0ug/day3.1 mg/dayCrudeMcKeown 2001
64680FemalesMiddle-aged participants in a dietary validation studyUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Norfolk (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes882978.01322.0ug/day3.0 mg/dayCrudeMcKeown 2001
64750MalesMiddle-aged participants in a dietary validation studyUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Norfolk (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes582780.01170.0ug/day2.8 mg/dayCrudeMcKeown 2001
64820FemalesMiddle-aged participants in a dietary validation studyUnited KingdomGBEPIC-Norfolk (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes882887.01438.0ug/day2.9 mg/dayCrudeMcKeown 2001
678467862AllAfrican American adults from Black churches in Atlanta areaUnited StatesUSEat for Life Trial-12 daysModification of HHHQ (Health Habits and History Questionnaire) + USDA36-item1 weekFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes10023650.03041.0ug/day3.6 mg/dayCrudeResnicow 2000
679267942AllAfrican American adults from Black churches in Atlanta areaUnited StatesUSEat for Life TrialUSDA24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneYes4142867.05948.0ug/day2.9 mg/dayCrudeResnicow 2000
680068022AllAfrican American adults from Black churches in Atlanta areaUnited StatesUSEat for Life TrialUSDA24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneYes1052578.03089.0ug/day2.6 mg/dayCrudeResnicow 2000
71720InterventionWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUS24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-Carotene295328.0ug/day5.3 mg/dayCrudeMcEligot 1999
71770ControlsWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUS24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-Carotene274275.0ug/day4.3 mg/dayCrudeMcEligot 1999
71820InterventionWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUS24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-Carotene2923049.0ug/day23.0 mg/dayCrudeMcEligot 1999
71870ControlsWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUS24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-Carotene278084.0ug/day8.1 mg/dayCrudeMcEligot 1999
71920InterventionWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUS24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-Carotene2921698.0ug/day21.7 mg/dayCrudeMcEligot 1999
71970ControlsWomen with past breast cancer with or without a high vegetable diet interventionUnited StatesUS24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-Carotene276634.0ug/day6.6 mg/dayCrudeMcEligot 1999
72390MalesElderly subjectsUnited StatesUSFramingham Heart StudyFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes2013793.02608.03206.0ug/day3.8 mg/day3.2 mg/dayCrudeTucker 1999
72400Males - Supplement nonusersElderly subjectsUnited StatesUSFramingham Heart StudyFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo1773520.02474.02904.0ug/day3.5 mg/day2.9 mg/dayCrudeTucker 1999
72510FemalesElderly subjectsUnited StatesUSFramingham Heart StudyFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes3464508.02925.03911.0ug/day4.5 mg/day3.9 mg/dayCrudeTucker 1999
72520Females - Supplement nonusersElderly subjectsUnited StatesUSFramingham Heart StudyFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo3144216.02609.03741.0ug/day4.2 mg/day3.7 mg/dayCrudeTucker 1999
726872711AllWomen in the southern part of Mexico CityMexicoMX24-h Dietary recall (4-day)beta-Carotene1101079.0849.0ug/day1.1 mg/dayCrudeRomieu 1999
727872811AllWomen in the southern part of Mexico CityMexicoMXFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene1101257.0812.0ug/day1.3 mg/dayCrudeRomieu 1999
728872911AllWomen in the southern part of Mexico CityMexicoMXFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene1101165.0724.0ug/day1.2 mg/dayCrudeRomieu 1999
73790MalesParticipants in an investigation of antioxidant intake and adult onset asthma in ScotlandUnited KingdomGBFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes1182024.01272.4366.01817.010158.0ug/day2.0 mg/day1.8 mg/dayCrudeBodner 1998
73800Supplement nonusers - MalesParticipants in an investigation of antioxidant intake and adult onset asthma in ScotlandUnited KingdomGBFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo1002014.01272.8366.01811.010158.0ug/day2.0 mg/day1.8 mg/dayCrudeBodner 1998
73970FemalesParticipants in an investigation of antioxidant intake and adult onset asthma in ScotlandUnited KingdomGBFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneYes1552065.91165.1185.01894.08041.0ug/day2.1 mg/day1.9 mg/dayCrudeBodner 1998
73980Supplement nonusers - FemalesParticipants in an investigation of antioxidant intake and adult onset asthma in ScotlandUnited KingdomGBFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo1372051.31146.4185.01918.58041.0ug/day2.1 mg/day1.9 mg/dayCrudeBodner 1998
75170All [HPFS]Men living in the Boston areaUnited StatesUSHPFS (Health Professionals Follow-Up Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene1215004.03313.0mg/day5004.0 mg/dayCrudeMichaud 1998
75230All [HPFS]Men living in the Boston areaUnited StatesUSHPFS (Health Professionals Follow-Up Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene1214888.02873.0mg/day4888.0 mg/dayCrudeMichaud 1998
75290All [NHS]Women living in the Boston areaUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene1865100.02997.0mg/day5100.0 mg/dayCrudeMichaud 1998
75350All [NHS]Women living in the Boston areaUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene1864755.02574.0mg/day4755.0 mg/dayCrudeMichaud 1998
77320African AmericansAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics Study24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneYes1241298.0ug/day1.3 mg/dayRegressionAge, Sex, Education, BMI, CholesterolArab 2011
77370African AmericansAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics StudyDiet History Questionnaire (DHQ)beta-CaroteneYes1242237.0ug/day2.2 mg/dayRegressionAge, Sex, Education, BMI, CholesterolArab 2011
77420WhitesAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics Study24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-CaroteneYes1261926.0ug/day1.9 mg/dayRegressionAge, Sex, Education, BMI, CholesterolArab 2011
77470WhitesAfrican American and white adults from Los Angeles areaUnited StatesUSUCLA Energetics StudyDiet History Questionnaire (DHQ)beta-CaroteneYes1263246.0ug/day3.2 mg/dayRegressionAge, Sex, Education, BMI, CholesterolArab 2011
81590AllMen from a large clinical trialUnited StatesUSPolyp Prevention TrialFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo1627984.02189.050.216500.0ug/day8.0 mg/dayCrudeMarshall 1997
82730AllAdults in MataróSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ)beta-Carotene724418.23329.4ug/dL44.2 mg/LCrudeGonzalez 1997
82770AllAdults in MataróSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-Carotene722976.21719.3ug/dL29.8 mg/LCrudeGonzalez 1997
82810MalesAdults in MataróSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ)beta-Carotene324210.22995.8ug/dL42.1 mg/LCrudeGonzalez 1997
82850MalesAdults in MataróSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-Carotene322796.41740.4ug/dL28.0 mg/LCrudeGonzalez 1997
82890FemalesAdults in MataróSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ)beta-Carotene404584.53603.2ug/dL45.8 mg/LCrudeGonzalez 1997
82930FemalesAdults in MataróSpainESEPIC-Spain (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-Carotene403120.01710.5ug/dL31.2 mg/LCrudeGonzalez 1997
83260MalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyNetherlandsNLEPIC-Dutch (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-Carotene631.62mg/day1.6 mg/dayCrudeOcke 1997
83330MalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyNetherlandsNLEPIC-Dutch (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene631.88mg/day1.9 mg/dayCrudeOcke 1997
83400FemalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyNetherlandsNLEPIC-Dutch (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-Carotene581.22mg/day1.2 mg/dayCrudeOcke 1997
83470FemalesParticipants in a dietary validation studyNetherlandsNLEPIC-Dutch (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene581.51mg/day1.5 mg/dayCrudeOcke 1997
83760MalesSchoolteachers participant in a dietary validation studyGreeceGREPIC-Greece (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-Carotene423.62.1mg/day3.6 mg/dayCrudeKatsouyanni 1997
83820MalesSchoolteachers participant in a dietary validation studyGreeceGREPIC-Greece (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene426.64.7mg/day6.6 mg/dayCrudeKatsouyanni 1997
83880MalesSchoolteachers participant in a dietary validation studyGreeceGREPIC-Greece (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene427.66.9mg/day7.6 mg/dayCrudeKatsouyanni 1997
83940FemalesSchoolteachers participant in a dietary validation studyGreeceGREPIC-Greece (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)24-h Dietary recall (1-day)beta-Carotene382.81.2mg/day2.8 mg/dayCrudeKatsouyanni 1997
84000FemalesSchoolteachers participant in a dietary validation studyGreeceGREPIC-Greece (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene389.05.4mg/day9.0 mg/dayCrudeKatsouyanni 1997
84060FemalesSchoolteachers participant in a dietary validation studyGreeceGREPIC-Greece (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene386.74.4mg/day6.7 mg/dayCrudeKatsouyanni 1997
84240Non-smokers femalesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselineArizona FFQ + Mangel’s databaseFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo563.422.06mg/day3.4 mg/dayCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84280Non-smokers femalesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselineArizona FFQ + Block’s databaseFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo562.611.56mg/day2.6 mg/dayCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84320Smokers femalesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselineArizona FFQ + Mangel’s databaseFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo122.92.11mg/day2.9 mg/dayCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84360Smokers femalesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselineArizona FFQ + Block’s databaseFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo122.32.39mg/day2.3 mg/dayCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84400Non-smokers malesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselineArizona FFQ + Mangel’s databaseFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo673.642.23mg/day3.6 mg/dayCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84440Non-smokers malesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselineArizona FFQ + Block’s databaseFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo673.262.82mg/day3.3 mg/dayCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84480Smokers malesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselineArizona FFQ + Mangel’s databaseFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo253.271.6mg/day3.3 mg/dayCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84520Smokers malesAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselineArizona FFQ + Block’s databaseFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo252.71.56mg/day2.7 mg/dayCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84560AllAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselineArizona FFQ + Mangel’s databaseFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo1603.452.07mg/day3.4 mg/dayCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
84600AllAdults at the Arizona Cancer CenterUnited StatesUSbaselineArizona FFQ + Block’s databaseFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo1602.872.24mg/day2.9 mg/dayCrudeRitenbaugh 1996
85150AllStudents and technicians attending the Agriculture Faculty and the Nursing School of San Carlo Hospital of MilanItalyITFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo383569.51308.8ug/day3.6 mg/dayCrudePorrini 1995
85180AllStudents and technicians attending the Agriculture Faculty and the Nursing School of San Carlo Hospital of MilanItalyITWeighed Dietary record (7-day)beta-CaroteneNo382653.21245.2ug/day2.7 mg/dayCrudePorrini 1995
87520AllWomen living in the Cambridge areaUnited KingdomGBWeighed Dietary record (4-day)beta-Carotene428.096.6mg/day8.1 mg/dayCrudeScott 1996
87530AllWomen living in the Cambridge areaUnited KingdomGBWeighed Dietary record (4-day)beta-Carotene4210.168.35mg/day10.2 mg/dayCrudeScott 1996
87540AllWomen living in the Cambridge areaUnited KingdomGBWeighed Dietary record (4-day)beta-Carotene4210.468.67mg/day10.5 mg/dayCrudeScott 1996
87550AllWomen living in the Cambridge areaUnited KingdomGBWeighed Dietary record (4-day)beta-Carotene428.326.93mg/day8.3 mg/dayCrudeScott 1996
87560AllWomen living in the Cambridge areaUnited KingdomGBWeighed Dietary record (4-day)beta-Carotene429.267.69mg/day9.3 mg/dayCrudeScott 1996
880988131AllPremenopausal womenUnited StatesUSNCI-USDA diet study on alcohol-hormone metabolismDietary record (7-day)beta-Carotene982652.02336.01998.0365.02098.016507.0ug/day2.7 mg/day2.0 mg/day2.1 mg/dayCrudeYong 1994
882188251AllPremenopausal womenUnited StatesUSNCI-USDA diet study on alcohol-hormone metabolismFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene983335.02154.02697.0265.02704.011197.0ug/day3.3 mg/day2.7 mg/day2.7 mg/dayCrudeYong 1994
887388771AllMenUnited StatesUSFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-Carotene573882.02452.0ug/day3.9 mg/dayCrudeForman 1993
887988831AllMenUnited StatesUSDietary record (7-day)beta-Carotene573150.02156.0ug/day3.1 mg/dayCrudeForman 1993
93850SmokersMen smokers and non-smokers in ScotlandUnited KingdomGBFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo792924.01695.0ug/day2.9 mg/dayCrudeBolton-Smith 1991
93910Non-smokersMen smokers and non-smokers in ScotlandUnited KingdomGBFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)beta-CaroteneNo1173526.02248.0ug/day3.5 mg/dayCrudeBolton-Smith 1991
10567105681AllParticipants in a dietary validation studyAustraliaAUNambour Skin Cancer StudyWeighed Dietary record (2-day)beta-CaroteneYes284067.02271.0623.09249.0ug/day4.1 mg/dayCrudeMcNaughton 2005

Correlation values

Reproducibility values

IDMst. IDSubject groupPopulationCountryCountry codeCohortTime definitionBiological specimenExperimental methodBiomarkerBiomarker detailArithmetic meanGeometric meanMedianUnitAdjusted onReproducibility sizeICCICC 95% CI lowerICC 95% CI upperCV% WSCV% BSVAR WSVAR BSPublication
391762All [by diagnosis]Elderly subjects with and without mild cognitive impairmentUnited StatesUSbaseline; 1 monthPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotenemissing unit380.88Bowman 2011
681740No cognitive impairmentElderly subjects with and without mild cognitive impairmentUnited StatesUSbaseline; 1 monthPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotenemissing unit190.85Bowman 2011
901718Mild cognitive impairmentElderly subjects with and without mild cognitive impairmentUnited StatesUSbaseline; 1 monthPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotenemissing unit190.97Bowman 2011
12018273AllHawaii womenUnited StatesUSCohort study of cervical human papillomavirus at the Cancer Research Center of Hawaiibaseline; month 4; month 8; month 12Plasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene200.0149.0ng/mL3810.740.0020.005Shvetsov 2009
17118466AllSmokers and nonsmokers exposed to second-hand smokeUnited StatesUSStudy on the effect of antioxidant supplements on oxidative damage in active and passive smokersbaseline; 2 weeksPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene11.468.3ug/dL2060.760.1580.449Block 2006
18418494AllWomenUnited StatesUSNYUWHS (New York University Women's Health Study)baseline; 1 year; 2 yearsSerum, non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotenemissing unit480.84van Kappel 2001
28018617AllBreast cancer survivorsUnited StatesUSWHEL (Women's Healthy Eating and Living)baseline; 1 year; 4 yearsPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Caroteneumol/L13230.66Al-Delaimy 2008
28918632AllNursesUnited StatesUSNHS (Nurses' Health Study)baseline; 2 yearsPlasma, unspecifiedHPLCbeta-Carotene288.0ug/L400.730.560.8532.954.7Kotsopoulos 2010
62319094AllDutch participants of the EPIC-StudyNetherlandsNLMORGEN-EPIC projectbaseline; 3 yearsPlasma, non-fastingHPLCbeta-Carotenenmol/L620.380.190.55Leenders 2013
9018776AllWomen living in the Cambridge areaUnited KingdomGBbaseline; 1 week; 2 weeks; 3 weeksPlasma, fastingHPLCbeta-Carotene0.542umol/L4235.744.2Scott 1996